《为人民谋幸福:新中国人权事业发展70年》白皮书White Paper: Seeking Happiness for People: 70 Years of Progress on Human Rig

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  为人民谋幸福:新中国人权事业发展70年

  (2019年9月)

  中华人民共和国

  国务院新闻办公室

  Seeking Happiness for People: 70 Years of Progress on Human Rights in China

  The State Council Information Office of

  the People’s Republic of China

  September 2019

  目录

  Contents

  前言

  Preamble

  一、辉煌壮丽的人权发展历程

  I. A Splendid History of China’s Human Rights Protection

  二、以人民为中心的人权理念

  II. People-centered Approach in Human Rights Protection

  三、持续提升人民生活水平

  III. Continuing to Improve People’s Living Standards

  四、切实保障人民各项权利

  IV. Effectively Ensuring That People Enjoy Their Rights

  五、重视保障特定群体权利

  V. Protecting the Rights of Special Groups

  六、不断加强人权法治保障

  VI. Strengthening the Rule of Law for Human Rights

  七、全面参与全球人权治理

  VII. Full Participation in Global Governance of Human Rights

  八、推动世界人权事业发展

  VIII. Advancing the International Cause of Human Rights

  结束语

  Conclusion

  前言

  Preamble

  2019年10月1日,是中华人民共和国成立70周年纪念日。无论是对中国还是对世界,这个日子都有着特别的意义。因为有了新中国70年,中国人民的生活才更加幸福美满;因为有了新中国70年,我们的世界才更加繁荣发展;因为有了新中国70年,人类社会才更加丰富多彩。

  October 1, 2019 is the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), a day of special significance not only for China but for the entire world. As a result of the developments that have taken place in the PRC over the 70 years, the people of China are living a happier life, the world is more prosperous, and human society is more diverse and colorful.

  70年前,在中国共产党的领导下,中国人民实现了翻身解放和当家作主。新中国70年,是中华民族迎来从站起来、富起来到强起来的70年;新中国70年,是中国人民各项基本权利日益得到尊重和保障的70年;新中国70年,是中国不断为世界人权事业发展作出贡献的70年。

  Seventy years ago, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) the people of China were emancipated and became masters of their country. Over the subsequent seven decades, the Chinese nation has stood up and grown prosperous and is becoming strong; all basic rights of the people are better respected and protected; and China has made regular contribution to the international cause of human rights.

  人民幸福生活是最大的人权。中国共产党从诞生那一天起,就把为人民谋幸福、为民族谋复兴、为人类谋发展作为奋斗目标。新中国成立以来,特别是中共十八大以来,在习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想指引下,中国不断总结人类社会发展经验,在建设中国特色社会主义的伟大实践中,坚持把人权的普遍性原则与自身实际相结合,奉行以人民为中心的人权理念,始终把生存权、发展权作为首要的基本人权,协调增进全体人民的各项权利,努力促进人的全面发展。历史和现实都证明,中国成功地走出了一条符合国情的人权发展道路,丰富了人类文明多样性。

  Living a happy life is the primary human right. Since the day of its foundation, the CPC has set its goal to work for the wellbeing of the people of China, for national rejuvenation and for human progress. Since the founding of the PRC, and especially since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, China has been guided by Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era. The nation has constantly reviewed the experience gained in human social development, integrated the principle of universality of human rights with national conditions in practicing socialism with Chinese characteristics, and espoused a people-centered view of human rights. China regards the rights to subsistence and development as its primary and basic human rights. It endeavors to improve the rights of all its people in a coordinated manner and works for their rounded development. Both history and present circumstances attest that China has opened a new path of human rights protection based on its national conditions, and increased the diversity of human civilizations.

  作为国际社会重要一员,新中国高举和平、发展、合作、共赢的旗帜,坚持维护世界和平、促进共同发展,坚持以合作促发展,以发展促人权,全面参与全球人权治理,努力推动世界人权事业发展进步。

  As a key member of the international community, China raises high the banner of peace, development, cooperation, and mutual benefits, stanchly safeguarding world peace, promoting common development, and advancing development through cooperation while promoting human rights through development. It fully participates in global human rights governance, and works strenuously to advance the international cause of human rights.

  一、辉煌壮丽的人权发展历程

  I. A Splendid History of China’s Human Rights Protection

  中华人民共和国是中国共产党领导的社会主义国家。为中国人民谋幸福,为中华民族谋复兴,是中国共产党人的初心和使命;以人民为中心,是中国共产党执政的最高价值。中国共产党的领导,是中国人民能够享有人权并不断享有更加充分人权的根本保证,是全体中国人民的利益所在、幸福所在,是中国人权事业的命脉所在、根本所在。

  The PRC is a socialist country led by the CPC. The original aspiration and the mission of the Party is to seek happiness for the people of China and rejuvenation for the Chinese nation, and putting the people at the center of all its work is the supreme pursuit of the Party in its governance. The Party’s leadership is the fundamental guarantee for the people of China to have access to human rights, and to fully enjoy more human rights. This leadership is therefore in the interests of all people of China, critical for their pursuit of a happy life, and provides the foundations for the cause of human rights in China.

  新中国人权事业的发展,与当代中国发展进程相统一,是中国特色社会主义发展的必然结果。自1949年以来,新中国人权事业发展大体经历了三个时期。

  The progress in human rights in China parallels the country’s overall progress in recent times, and results from the development of socialism with Chinese characteristics. The cause of human rights in China has gone through three phases since 1949:

  第一个时期:1949年新中国成立,确立了社会主义基本制度,完成了中国历史上最为广泛而深刻的社会变革,为中国人权事业发展奠定了根本政治前提和制度基础。

  The first phase: Founded in 1949, the PRC established a basic socialist system and achieved the most extensive and profound social transformation in China’s history, laying down the basic political prerequisite and establishing the institutions for developing human rights in China.

  从1840年到1949年,由于西方列强的一次次入侵,加之统治阶级的腐朽和社会制度的落后,中国逐步沦为半殖民地半封建社会。战乱频仍、社会动荡、经济凋敝、民不聊生,是当时中国的真实写照。在旧中国,广大人民长期处于帝国主义、封建主义和官僚资本主义的压迫下,毫无人权可言。

  Between 1840 and 1949, due to repeated invasions by foreign powers, a corrupt ruling class, and a backward social system, China was gradually reduced to a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society. Frequent wars, instability, a shattered economy, and a destitute populace – this is an accurate portrayal of China at that time. The people suffered under the oppression of imperialism, feudalism, and bureaucrat-capitalism, and had no access to human rights at all.

  新中国的成立,实现和捍卫了真正完全的民族解放和国家独立,为中国人民的生命、自由和人身安全提供了根本保障,为中国人民各项权利得到有效保障和不断发展创造了根本条件。

  With the founding of the PRC, China achieved and then defended true, complete national liberation and independence, which provided the fundamental guarantee for the subsistence, freedom, and personal security of the people, and created fundamental conditions to effectively protect and continuously improve all of their rights.

  新中国建立和巩固了人民民主的政治制度,保障人民当家作主的权利。在新中国成立前夕,通过了具有临时宪法作用的《中国人民政治协商会议共同纲领》,规定人民享有选举权和被选举权以及广泛的政治权利和自由;妇女在政治、经济、文化教育、社会生活各方面均有与男子平等的权利。1954年,第一届全国人民代表大会第一次会议通过的《中华人民共和国宪法》,确立了人民民主原则和社会主义原则,确立了人民代表大会制度,在制度上保障了国家一切权力属于人民,并设立专章规定了公民的基本权利和义务。

  The PRC established and consolidated the political system of people’s democracy, which guarantees the people’s rights to be masters of their country. The Common Program of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference, which was adopted on the eve of the founding of the PRC and served as the provisional Constitution of China, stipulates: people have the right to vote and to stand in election in addition to a wide range of political rights and freedoms; and women have the same rights as men in all respects, including politics, economy, culture, education and social life. The 1954 Constitution of the PRC, which was adopted at the First Session of the First National People’s Congress (NPC), set up the principles of people’s democracy and socialism, established the system of people’s congresses, and provided institutional guarantees for ensuring all power in the PRC belongs to the people. It included a chapter specifying the basic rights and obligations of citizens.

  新中国开展各项民主改革和社会事业建设,为促进经济社会发展和保障人权创造了条件。土地改革运动废除了地主阶级封建剥削的土地所有制,中国农民真正从经济上翻身做了主人,被束缚的农村生产力获得解放,广大农民的经济地位和生活状况大大改善。从1950年起,对国营厂矿交通企业的生产和管理制度进行民主改革,建立工厂管理委员会和职工代表大会,使工人真正成为企业的主人。1950年,颁布实施婚姻法,废除包办强迫、男尊女卑、漠视子女利益的封建婚姻制度,实行婚姻自由、一夫一妻、男女权利平等、保护妇女和子女合法利益的新婚姻制度。促进教育、医疗卫生事业发展,建立劳动保险和社会救济制度,初步形成以单位为组织形式的社会保障体系。

  The various democratic reforms and social programs carried out by the PRC during this period created conditions for economic and social development and protection of human rights. The land reform in the early 1950s abolished the feudal system of land ownership that allowed for exploitation by the landlord class. As a result, Chinese peasants were economically liberated and became masters of their country. Suppressed rural productive forces were unleashed and peasants’ economic status and living standards were greatly improved. The democratic reform of the production and management of state-owned factories, mines, and transportation operators that started in 1950 set up factory management committees and workers’ congresses in these entities, and hence made workers true masters of their enterprises. The Marriage Law promulgated in 1950 abolished the feudal marriage system that sanctioned arranged or forced marriages, enabled men’s superiority over women, and neglected children’s interests. It established a new marriage system featuring monogamy, freedom of marriage, gender equality, and protection of the legitimate interests of women and children. In addition, China promoted education and healthcare, established labor insurance and social relief systems, and created a nascent social security system with public employers being the building blocks.

  新中国建设独立完整的国民经济体系,推动经济发展,为保障人权奠定经济基础。新中国迅速医治战争创伤,仅用三年时间,就使国民经济和人民生活恢复到历史最高水平。在此基础上,不失时机地对农业、手工业和资本主义工商业进行社会主义改造,建立了社会主义的基本经济制度,为人民平等参与经济发展和分享劳动成果提供了基本的社会制度保证。

  The PRC established a complete, comprehensive economic system to boost economic growth, which laid the economic foundations for human rights protection. The newborn People’s Republic quickly recovered from the devastation of past wars. In only three years its economy and the people’s standard of living rose to the highest level in history. On this basis China started socialist transformation of agriculture, handcrafts and capitalist industry and commerce, and established a basic economic system of socialism. This provided the basic institutional guarantee for the people to participate in economic development and share the fruits of their work on an equal footing.

  新中国彻底否定了民族压迫和民族歧视,发展民族平等、互助、团结关系。民族区域自治制度的成功实行,有效保障了少数民族在祖国大家庭中的平等权利和少数民族管理本民族、本地区事务的自治权利。

  The PRC soundly rejects ethnic oppression and discrimination, and forges an interethnic relationship characterized by equality, mutual help and unity. The success of the system of regional ethnic autonomy effectively guarantees the equal rights of all ethnic minority groups in China as well as their right of autonomy in handling affairs of their own groups and regions.

  第二个时期:1978年实行改革开放,成功开辟了中国特色社会主义道路,极大地解放和发展了社会生产力,人民生存权、发展权和各项基本权利不断得到更好保障,中国人权事业得到大发展。

  The second phase: The reform and opening up launched in 1978 opened the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and has emancipated and developed the productive forces to a great extent. As a result the people’s rights to subsistence and development and other basic rights are better protected, and the cause of human rights in China has made huge progress.

  改革开放是中国共产党在新的时代条件下带领全国各族人民进行的新的伟大革命。中国共产党带领人民深刻总结我国社会主义建设正反两方面经验,坚持走社会主义道路,坚持以经济建设为中心,坚持四项基本原则,坚持改革开放,建设中国特色社会主义。中国共产党把发展作为执政兴国的第一要务和解决中国所有问题的关键,大力发展社会生产力,努力以发展促进人权保障,极大地调动了亿万人民的积极性。

  Reform and opening up was a great new revolution undertaken by the people of China and led by the CPC under the new conditions of that era. Under the leadership of the CPC, the people review experiences and lessons drawn from socialist construction, adhere to the path of socialism, keep economic development as our central task, uphold the Four Cardinal Principles and reform and opening up, and build socialism with Chinese characteristics. The CPC pursues development as its top priority in governance and rejuvenation of the nation and the key to solving all China’s problems. It vigorously builds up productive forces and strives to better protect human rights through development, and has thereby aroused great enthusiasm among the people.

  在改革开放中,中国共产党将尊重和保障人权作为执政主张,不断赋予中国人权发展新的内涵。1997年,中共十五大明确提出,“保证人民依法享有广泛的权利和自由,尊重和保障人权”。2002年,“尊重和保障人权”作为社会主义政治文明建设的重要目标写入中共十六大报告。2007年,中共十七大报告进一步指出要“尊重和保障人权,依法保证全体社会成员平等参与、平等发展的权利”。同年,“尊重和保障人权”首次载入《中国共产党章程》。

  In the course of reform and opening up, the CPC has made respecting and protecting human rights a goal of its governance, and added new elements to advancing the cause. In 1997, the 15th CPC National Congress committed to: “…ensuring that the people enjoy extensive rights and freedom endowed by law, and respecting and guaranteeing human rights.” In 2002, “Human rights are respected and guaranteed” was written into the report to the 16th CPC National Congress as an important goal of socialist political progress. In 2007, the report to the 17th CPC National Congress further pointed out: “We must respect and guarantee human rights, and ensure the equal right to participation and development for all members of society in accordance with the law.” And in the same year, this principle was written for the first time into the CPC Constitution.

  在改革开放中,中国坚持依宪治国,为促进人权事业全面发展提供根本法保障。1982年,第五届全国人大五次会议通过了现行宪法。宪法明确规定了中国社会主义民主的主要内容和基本形态,全面系统规定了全体人民享有广泛的公民权利、政治权利和经济、社会、文化权利。此后,全国人大五次通过宪法修正案,从基本经济制度、分配制度、保护公民私有财产、建立健全社会保障制度等方面,不断加强对人权的保护。特别是2004年3月,第十届全国人大二次会议将“尊重和保障人权”写入宪法,有力保障和推进了中国人权事业发展。

  In the course of reform and opening up, China adheres to governance based on the Constitution, which provides the fundamental legal guarantee for comprehensive progress in human rights. In 1982, the Fifth Session of the Fifth NPC adopted the current Constitution of the PRC, which clearly defines the substance and basic form of socialist democracy. It provides that all citizens are entitled to civil rights, political rights, and economic, social and cultural rights. In the following years, the NPC adopted five amendments to the Constitution to better protect human rights. These covered the basic economic system, distribution system, protection of citizens’ private property, and social security system. In particular, the amendment adopted at the Second Session of the 10th NPC added the line “The State respects and preserves human rights” into the Constitution, a move that has strongly guaranteed and advanced human rights in China.

  在改革开放中,中国努力将促进人权事业发展纳入国家发展战略和规划。1991年,中国发布第一部人权白皮书——《中国的人权状况》。制定并实施国家人权行动计划,确定尊重和保障人权的阶段性目标、任务。国家还制定了经济、文化、社会和环境等方面的专项行动计划,以及保障少数民族、妇女、儿童、老年人、残疾人等特定群体权利的专项规划,努力促进全体人民共同享有充分权利。

  In the course of reform and opening up, China has incorporated the protection of human rights into national development strategies and plans. In 1991, the Chinese government published its first white paper on human rights – Human Rights in China. It formulated and implemented the National Human Rights Action Plan, which set phased goals and tasks for respecting and safeguarding human rights. China has also made targeted action plans relating to the economy, culture, society, the environment and other fields, as well as plans to protect the rights of specific groups, such as ethnic minorities, women, children, the elderly, and people with disabilities, to ensure that all the people of China can fully enjoy their rights.

  在改革开放中,中国进一步建立并完善了适合本国国情的人权保障制度,初步形成了中国特色人权保障体系。国家建立了最低生活保障制度、最低工资保障制度、劳动保障监察制度和劳动人事争议处理制度、就业救助制度、中小学义务教育制度等;通过民法通则和侵权责任法等建立了人格权保护体系,推进户籍制度改革,并不断完善选举制度、基层群众自治制度、政务信息公开制度、诉讼制度、知识产权保护制度等。

  In the course of reform and opening up, China has established and improved institutions for protecting human rights that are suited to its national conditions. A human rights protection system with Chinese characteristics has taken shape. The Chinese government has put into place a number of systems and mechanisms, including those dealing with subsistence allowances, the minimum wage, labor security supervision, labor dispute settlement, employment assistance, and compulsory education (primary and middle schools). With the promulgation of the General Principles of the Civil Law and Tort Liability Law, China has established a system of protection for the right to dignity. In addition, it has advanced household registration reform, and made consistent improvements to the election system, the community-level self-governance system, the system for transparency of government affairs, the litigation system and the system for intellectual property protection.

  第三个时期:2012年中共十八大召开,中国特色社会主义进入新时代,在习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想指引下,坚持以人民为中心的发展思想,大力保障和改善民生,加强人权法治保障,中国人权事业得到全面发展。

  The third phase: The 18th CPC National Congress in 2012 marks the advent of a new era for socialism with Chinese characteristics. Guided by Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, China espouses the people-centered development philosophy, works hard to ensure and improve people’s wellbeing, and continues to strengthen legal protection for human rights. As a result, the cause of human rights in China has made headway on all fronts.

  新时代中国特色社会主义将“人权得到切实尊重和保障”作为全面建成小康社会的重要目标,从战略层面确立了人权事业的重要地位。中共十八大修改通过的《中国共产党章程》再次重申尊重和保障人权。2014年,中共十八届四中全会通过《中共中央关于全面推进依法治国若干重大问题的决定》,强调“加强人权司法保障”“增强全社会尊重和保障人权意识”。2017年,中共十九大确立习近平新时代中国特色社会主义思想为中国共产党的指导思想,明确提出“加强人权法治保障,保证人民依法享有广泛权利和自由”,为全面推进中国人权事业提供了根本遵循。

  In building socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era, full respect for and protection of human rights is an important goal of China’s endeavors to build a moderately prosperous society in all respects. This establishes the importance of human rights from a strategic perspective. The CPC Constitution amended and adopted at the 18th National Congress reaffirms the principle of respecting and protecting human rights. In 2014, the Fourth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee adopted the “Resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on Major Issues Concerning Comprehensively Advancing the Rule of Law”, which emphasizes the need to “provide stronger judicial protection of human rights” and to “strengthen awareness throughout the whole of society about the need to respect and safeguard human rights.” In 2017, the 19th CPC National Congress established Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era as the guiding ideology of the CPC, and categorically stated that we should “strengthen legal protection for human rights to ensure that the people enjoy extensive rights and freedoms as prescribed by law.” This provides fundamental basis for us to advance the cause of human rights in China.

  新时代中国特色社会主义将人民对美好生活的向往作为奋斗目标,切实增强人民获得感、幸福感、安全感。坚持以解决社会主要矛盾为人权发展立足点,聚焦人民日益增长的美好生活需要,促进各项人权的充分平衡发展。坚持以人的全面发展为人权价值取向,落实新发展理念,逐步实现全体人民共同富裕,建设富强民主文明和谐美丽的社会主义现代化强国。

  In building socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era, the people’s aspiration to live a better life is the focus of all the country’s work, and China strives to give the people a stronger sense of gain, happiness and security. It bases the cause of human rights on the endeavors to solve the principal contradiction in Chinese society, focuses on people’s ever-growing needs for a better life, and promotes full and balanced progress in all human rights. China promotes well-rounded development of the people as a principle of human rights, applies the new development philosophy, presses ahead toward common prosperity for all, and strives to build a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious and beautiful.

  新时代中国特色社会主义着眼于实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标和中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦,提出经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设“五位一体”总体布局,使每个人的经济、政治、文化、社会、环境权利能够得到充分保障;提出全面建成小康社会、全面深化改革、全面依法治国、全面从严治党“四个全面”战略布局,为全面推进中国人权事业提供了有力保障。中国将尊重和保障人权贯穿于推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化的全过程,加强人权法治保障,积极改革完善各项人权保障制度,以制度现代化与法治精神的高度统一维护公民的各项权利。

  In building socialism with Chinese characteristics for a new era, China focuses on achieving the Two Centenary Goals and realizing the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation. For this purpose it put forward the Five-point Strategy (promoting economic, political, cultural, social, and environmental progress in a coordinated way), so every citizen’s rights can be fully protected in each of these spheres. For this new era it has also introduced the Four-pronged Strategy: to complete a moderately prosperous society in all respects, further reform, advance the rule of law, and strengthen Party discipline, which provides a strong guarantee for advancing the cause of human rights in China on all fronts. China respects and guarantees human rights throughout the process of modernizing its national governance system and capacity. It has strengthened legal protection for human rights and reformed and refined the systems to protect human rights, and it safeguards citizens’ rights through the combination of modern institutions and the rule of law.

  二、以人民为中心的人权理念

  II. People-centered Approach in Human Rights Protection

  经过新中国70年的人权发展实践,中国把人权的普遍性原则与本国具体实际相结合,已经形成了较为系统的以人民为中心的人权理念,其基本点包括:

  In developing human rights over the past 70 years, China has combined universal principles with the prevailing realities of the country, forming a system of human rights with a people-centered approach. The basic elements are:

  ——人权是历史的、发展的。人权是一定历史条件下的产物,也会随着历史条件的发展而发展。各国发展阶段、经济发展水平、文化传统、社会结构不同,所面临的人权发展任务和应采取的人权保障方式也会有所不同。应当尊重人权发展道路的多样性。只有将人权的普遍性原则同各国实际相结合,才能有效地促进人权的实现。世界各国在人权保障上没有最好,只有更好;世界上没有放之四海而皆准的人权发展道路和保障模式,人权事业发展必须也只能按照本国国情和人民需要加以推进。

  Human rights are a historical and developmental concept. Born under certain historical circumstances, the concept evolves as times change. Different nations have different tasks and take different approaches to ensure human rights, because they differ in terms of stage of development, economy, culture and society. Diversity in developing human rights should be respected. They can only be effectively ensured by combining universal principles with the prevailing realities of different countries. Every country has room for improvement in protecting human rights. There is no universally applicable model, and human rights can only advance in the context of national conditions and people’s needs.

  ——生存权、发展权是首要的基本人权。贫穷是实现人权的最大障碍。没有物质资料的生产和供给,人类其他一切权利的实现都是非常困难或不可能的。生存权利的有效保障、生活质量的不断提高,是享有和发展其他人权的前提和基础。近代中国长期遭受外来侵略,国家贫穷落后,人民困苦不堪,毫无权利可言。中国人民深知免于贫困、免于饥饿为生存之本。多年来,中国始终把解决人民的生存权、实现人民的发展权作为第一要务,不断解放和发展生产力,致力于消除贫困,提高发展水平,为保障人民各项权利的实现创造了基础条件。

  The rights to subsistence and development are the primary rights. Poverty is the greatest obstacle to providing human rights. It would be well-nigh impossible for humanity to ensure any right without the production and supply of goods and materials. The effective guarantee of the right to subsistence and the steady improvement of living standards are the preconditions and foundations for fulfilling and developing all other human rights. From the mid-19th century, China suffered repeated foreign aggressions and fell into poverty and backwardness. Living in misery, the people enjoyed utterly no right of any kind. The Chinese know very well what survival requires – no poverty and no hunger. Prioritizing people’s rights to subsistence and development, China has committed to liberating and developing productive forces, eliminating poverty, and enhancing its level of development. All this has laid the foundation for fulfilling the various rights of the people.

  ——人权是个人人权与集体人权的有机统一。没有个人的发展,就没有集体的发展;同时,也只有在集体中,个人才能获得全面发展。在当代中国的人权实践中,既重视集体人权的发展,又重视个人人权的保障,努力使二者相互统一、相互协调、相互促进。个人权利只有与集体权利统一起来,才能实现人权的最大化。中国在国家富强、民族振兴和人民幸福融为一体的发展中,努力保障每一个人和全体人民的各项权利。

  Human rights mean the integration of individual and collective rights. There is no collective development without individual development; individuals can only enjoy well-rounded development in a collective environment. In China, equal attention has been paid to developing collective rights and ensuring individual rights, so that the two are integrated, coordinated, and mutually-enhancing. Individual rights can only be maximized in the context of collective rights. The Chinese government strives to ensure the rights of every individual and all its citizens by seeking prosperity for the country, rejuvenation for the nation, and wellbeing for the people.

  ——整体推进各项权利是人权实现的重要原则。各项人权相互依赖、不可分割。中国坚持对各项权利的发展进行统筹协调、统一部署、均衡促进,切实推动经济、社会、文化权利和公民权利、政治权利的平衡发展。中共十八大以来,中国共产党和中国政府统筹推进经济建设、政治建设、文化建设、社会建设、生态文明建设“五位一体”总体布局,协调推进全面建成小康社会、全面深化改革、全面依法治国、全面从严治党“四个全面”战略布局,推进了中国人权事业的全面发展,体现了人权的整体性发展思想。

  Overall progress in all rights is a major principle of realization of human rights. All human rights are interdependent and inalienable. China coordinates the planning and promotion of all rights and endeavors to achieve a balanced development of economic, social, and cultural rights and civil and political rights. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the CPC and the Chinese government has sought to make overall economic, political, cultural, social, and environmental progress, known as the Five-point Strategy, and made comprehensive moves to complete a moderately prosperous society in all respects, further reform, advance the rule of law, and strengthen Party discipline, known as the Four-pronged Strategy. In this way, China has made comprehensive progress in human rights through an integrated approach.

  ——人民的获得感、幸福感、安全感是检验人权实现的重要标准。把人民对美好生活的向往落实到实现好、维护好、发展好最广大人民根本利益上,不断提高人民群众获得感、幸福感、安全感,是中国共产党执政的核心精神所在。坚持人民在人权事业中的主体地位,把人民利益摆在至高无上的位置,让人民过上好日子,使发展成果更多更公平地惠及全体人民,让每个人更好地发展自我、幸福生活,让每个人都能够免于恐惧、不受威胁,是实现人人享有更加充分人权的真谛所在。

  People’s sense of gain, happiness and security is an important criterion for evaluating human rights. The core spirit of CPC governance lies in fulfilling the people’s aspiration for a better life by realizing, safeguarding and developing their fundamental interests, and in enhancing their sense of gain, happiness and security. For everyone to fully enjoy human rights, we must uphold the people-centered approach, prioritize the people’s interests before anything else, and ensure a good life for the people. We must ensure that the fruits of development offer greater benefits to all the people in a fair way, enable every person to enjoy opportunities for self-development and a good life, and prevent them from fear and threat.

  ——公正合理包容是国际人权治理的基本原则。国际社会应秉持和平、发展、公平、正义、民主、自由的人类共同价值,维护人的尊严和权利,推动形成更加公正合理包容的全球人权治理。中国一直是国际人权事业健康发展的倡导者、践行者和推动者,反对将人权政治化或搞人权“双重标准”,推动国际社会以公正客观非选择的方式处理人权问题。中国全面深入参与国际人权交流、对话与合作,与各国一道推动共同构建人类命运共同体,开创世界美好未来。

  Fairness, being reasonable and inclusiveness are the basic principles of international human rights governance. The international community should uphold the shared values of humanity – peace, development, fairness, justice, democracy and freedom. It must safeguard human dignity and rights, and strive for fairer, more reasonable and inclusive global human rights governance. China is a supporter, practitioner and promoter of international human rights. It opposes politicizing human rights or applying double standards in matters related to human rights, and encourages the international community to address human rights issues in a fair, objective and non-selective manner. China is engaged in extensive, in-depth international exchanges, dialogue and cooperation concerning human rights, and works with the rest of the world to build a global community of shared future and a beautiful world.

  ——促进人的自由全面发展是人权的最高价值追求。每个人的自由发展是一切人的自由发展的条件。人权的主体是人,人权事业发展从根本上说是人的发展,要为人实现自身潜能创造条件。中国全面建成小康社会和实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦,就是让人民有更好的教育、更稳定的工作、更满意的收入、更可靠的社会保障、更高水平的医疗服务、更舒适的居住条件、更优美的环境,让每个人都能更有尊严地发展自我和奉献社会,共同享有人生出彩的机会,共同享有梦想成真的机会,增进人民福祉,促进人的全面发展。

  The free and well-rounded development of every person is the ultimate goal of human rights. The free development of each individual is the precondition for the free development of all people. Human rights are people’s rights; human rights development means people’s development. We must create the conditions for people’s self-actualization. By building a moderately prosperous society in all respects and realizing the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation, China aims to fulfill the people’s aspirations for a better education, more stable jobs, higher incomes, more reliable social security, better medical and health care, improved housing conditions, and a beautiful environment. It aims to enable every person to enjoy self-development and serve society with dignity, to ensure equal opportunities for all to live a rewarding life and realize their dreams, to improve their wellbeing, and to promote their well-rounded development.

  三、持续提升人民生活水平

  III. Continuing to Improve People’s Living Standards

  中国是世界上最大的发展中国家。如何解决好温饱问题,并在解决温饱的基础上实现更好的发展,使人民生活得更加幸福,始终是中国共产党最根本的执政任务。中国坚持把生存权、发展权作为首要的基本人权,努力通过发展增进人民福祉,实现更加充分的人权保障。

  China is the world’s largest developing country. It has always been the CPC’s most fundamental mission in governance to ensure adequate food and clothing for the people, achieve better development, and give the people a better life. Upholding the rights to subsistence and development as the primary human rights, China strives to enhance people’s wellbeing through development in order to better protect their human rights.

  粮食权得到有效保障。新中国成立之初,面临着农业生产基础单薄、“靠天吃饭”、粮食产量较低的现实困难,很多人处于食物匮乏和营养不良的困境。多年来,中国政府通过改革农村土地制度,稳定和完善农村土地承包关系,大力推进农田水利设施建设,使农业综合生产能力不断提升,主要农产品产量稳定增长。中国的粮食总产量由1949年的11318万吨提高到2018年的65789万吨,耕地灌溉面积由1949年的1594万公顷扩大到2018年的6810万公顷,谷物、肉类、花生、茶叶、水果等产量连续多年位居世界第一。中国以占全球6.6%的淡水资源和9%的耕地,养活了世界近20%的人口,从根本上消除了饥饿,持续改善了人民的营养水平。

  The right to food is effectively guaranteed. In the early days of the PRC, the country faced many difficulties, such as a weak agricultural base dependent on the weather, and low grain yield. As a result many Chinese did not have enough to eat and suffered from malnutrition. Over the years the Chinese government has carried out rural land reforms to stabilize and improve land contracting system in rural areas. With improved irrigation infrastructure, China’s agriculture has seen a continuing rise in productivity and steady increase in the output of main agricultural products.

  Total grain output soared from 113.18 million tons in 1949 to 657.89 million tons in 2018, and the area of irrigated farmland from 15.94 million ha in 1949 to 68.1 million ha in 2018. China’s output of grain, meat, peanut, tea, and fruit has topped the world for many years. China feeds approximately 20 percent of the world’s population using 6.6 percent of the fresh water resources and 9 percent of the arable land of the world; it has succeeded in improving nutrition and eradicating hunger.

  绝对贫困基本消除。贫穷是中国人民实现人权的最大障碍。国家积贫积弱、人民贫困如洗,是旧中国留给世人的深刻印象。新中国成立以来,中国共产党和中国政府带领人民为消除贫困作出了巨大努力。改革开放以来,中国持续开展以农村扶贫开发为中心的减贫行动。中共十八大以来,中共中央把贫困人口脱贫作为全面建成小康社会的底线任务和基本标志,作出打赢脱贫攻坚战的决策部署,明确到2020年现行标准下农村贫困人口实现脱贫、贫困县全部摘帽,解决区域性整体贫困。中共十九大把精准脱贫作为决胜全面建成小康社会必须打好的三大攻坚战之一,作出新的部署。中国农村贫困人口(按照2010年贫困标准)由1978年的7.7亿人减少至2018年的1660万人,农村贫困发生率由1978年的97.5%下降至2018年的1.7%。2012年至2018年,中国每年有1000多万人稳定脱贫。中国成为世界上减贫人口最多的国家,是第一个完成联合国千年发展目标减贫目标的发展中国家,对全球减贫贡献率超过70%。

  Absolute poverty eliminated. Poverty is the biggest obstacle to fulfilling the human rights of the Chinese people. In the past, the world knew an old, weak China mired in poverty, its people living in dire misery. Since the founding of the PRC, the CPC and the Chinese government have led the people in a great fight to eliminate poverty, highlighted by a campaign which since 1978, the year when reform and opening up was launched, has focused on development-oriented poverty alleviation in rural areas. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, the CPC Central Committee has taken poverty elimination as the primary task, made it a defining indicator in completing a moderately prosperous society in all respects, and laid out plans to win the final battle against poverty. It has been made clear that by 2020 there must be no more rural people living below the current poverty line and no more impoverished counties, and regional poverty must be eradicated. The 19th CPC National Congress has made new plans for targeted poverty eradication, one of the three final tasks that must be accomplished to achieve all-round moderate prosperity.

  Between 1978 and 2018 the number of rural poor fell from 770 million to 16.6 million calculated against China’s poverty line set in 2010, and the incidence of poverty in rural areas dropped from 97.5 percent to 1.7 percent. More than 10 million people rose and remained above the poverty line every year from 2012 to 2018. With the highest number of people moving out of poverty, China was the first developing country to realize one of the UN Millennium Development Goals for poverty reduction. This achievement represented 70 percent of the global poverty reduction effort.

  人民生活水平大幅提升。1952年,中国国内生产总值仅为679亿元,人均国内生产总值仅为119元。2018年,中国国内生产总值达到900309亿元,按不变价计算,比1952年增长174倍;人均国内生产总值达到64644元;人均国民总收入达到9732美元,高于中等收入国家平均水平。1956年,全国居民人均可支配收入仅为98元,人均消费支出仅为88元。2018年,全国居民人均可支配收入达到28228元,比1956年实际增长36.8倍;人均消费支出为19853元,比1956年实际增长28.5倍;全国居民恩格尔系数为28.4%,比1978年降低35.5个百分点。2018年,城镇居民家庭平均每百户家用汽车拥有量达41辆,农村居民家庭平均每百户家用汽车拥有量达22.3辆;全国居民每百户移动电话拥有量为249.1部。中共十八大以来,农村居民可支配收入实际增速连续多年快于城镇居民,城乡居民收入差距不断缩小,城乡居民人均可支配收入之比2018年已下降至2.69。

  Living standards improved markedly. In 1952, China’s GDP was RMB67.9 billion, with a per capita GDP of RMB119. In 2018, China’s GDP reached RMB90 trillion, 175 times that of the 1952 figure in real terms. The per capita GDP was RMB64,644, and the per capita gross national income was US$9,732 – above the average level of middle-income countries. The per capita disposable income of Chinese citizens in 1956 was RMB98, and the per capita consumer spending was RMB88. In 2018, the per capita disposable income reached RMB28,228, a 36.8-fold increase in real terms over that of 1956; the per capita consumer spending was RMB19,853, a 28.5-fold increase over 1956 in real terms; the Engel coefficient was 28.4 percent, 35.5 percentage points lower than that of 1978. In 2018, every 100 urban households had 41 family cars, and every 100 rural households had 22.3 family cars; every 100 households had 249.1 mobile phones.

  Following the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, the real growth in disposable rural income has outpaced urban income. The gap between urban and rural incomes has narrowed, with the ratio falling to 2.69 in 2018.

  饮水安全获得切实保障。实施农村饮水安全工程建设,2005年至2018年,全国累计解决5.2亿农村居民和4700多万农村学校师生的饮水安全问题,巩固提升了1.73亿农村人口供水保障水平,农村集中供水率和农村自来水普及率分别达到86%和81%。中国于2009年提前6年完成联合国千年发展目标提出的“饮水不安全人口减少一半”的目标。截至2018年,全国农村供水工程1100多万处,建立了比较完整的农村供水工程体系,农村供水服务总人口达到9.4亿人。开展全国重要饮用水水源地安全保障达标建设和检查评估,将618个供水人口20万以上地表水饮用水水源地及年供水量2000万立方米以上地下水饮用水水源地纳入《全国重要饮用水水源地名录(2016)》管理。按照水源地数量统计,2018年全国地级及以上城市871个在用集中式生活饮用水水源地中,达标水源地比例为90.9%。2018年全国居民有管道供水入户的户比重为90.0%,有安全饮用水的户比重为95.2%,获取饮用水无困难的户比重为96.3%。

  Safe drinking water. A program was launched in 2005 to guarantee safe drinking water in rural areas. By the end of 2018, a total of 520 million rural residents and 47 million teachers and students in rural areas had gained access to safe drinking water, 173 million rural residents had a better and more steady supply of drinking water, and the percentages of centralized water supply and running water supply reached 86 percent and 81 percent in rural areas. In 2009 China attained one of the UN Millennium Development Goals – halving the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water – six years ahead of schedule. As of 2018, there were more than 11 million water supply facilities in rural areas, and a complete rural water supply system had been formed to serve 940 million people.

  The government has conducted examination and assessment of key drinking water sources nationwide, to ensure they meet safety standards. In 2016, 618 surface water sources, each supplying drinking water for 200,000 people or more, and all ground water sources, each supplying 20 million or more cu m of drinking water annually, were incorporated into the Catalogue of China’s Major Drinking Water Sources. In 2018, 90.9 percent of the 871 drinking water sources serving cities at the prefecture level and above reached the required standard. In 2018, 90 percent of all households had piped water supply, 95.2 percent had access to safe drinking water, and 96.3 percent had convenient access to drinking water.

  人民基本居住条件显著改善。改革开放前,在十分困难的条件下,城镇以单位为主体、农村以农户为主体,努力解决住房问题。改革开放后,开展城镇住房制度改革,稳步推进住房商品化、社会化,住房保障体系不断完善,住房保障能力持续提升,城乡居民住房条件大幅改善。2018年,城镇居民人均住房建筑面积达到39.0平方米,比1956年增加33.3平方米,增长5.8倍;农村居民人均住房建筑面积达到47.3平方米,比1978年增加39.2平方米,增长4.8倍。自2008年以来,大规模实施城镇保障性安居工程,开展农村危房改造工作。截至2018年,全国城镇保障性安居工程累计开工建设约7000万套,累计约2200万困难群众领取了公租房租赁补贴,合计帮助约2亿困难群众改善了住房条件;帮助数千万贫困农民告别原来的破旧泥草房、土坯房、树皮房等危房,住上基本安全房,农房抗震防灾能力和居住舒适度得到显著提升。改善城市和农村人居环境,开展生态修复、城市修补,推进建筑节能、绿色建筑及既有建筑节能改造,推进农村生活污水治理和农村生活垃圾收运处置体系建设。截至2018年,全国已有84%的行政村实现生活垃圾收运处置体系基本覆盖。

  Improved housing conditions. Before the launch of reform and opening up in 1978, despite great difficulties, the government endeavored to address housing problems. At that time, housing was mainly provided by employers for workers in urban areas, while rural residents built their own houses. After 1978, urban housing reform was introduced to commercialize the sector, while the housing supply system was gradually improved. The housing conditions of urban and rural residents have improved markedly. In 2018, the per capita floor space of urban residents was 39.0 sq m, up by a factor of 5.8 from 1956, and that of rural residents was 47.3 sq m, up by a factor of 4.8 from 1978.

  Since 2008, the government has introduced major construction projects to provide affordable housing to urban residents, and renovated dilapidated rural housing. By 2018, government subsidies had been used to build 70 million housing units in urban areas, 22 million poor people had received public rental subsidies, and 200 million poor people had received help for improving their housing conditions. The state has helped tens of millions of rural households move into proper accommodation, leaving their dilapidated houses built of such materials as beaten earth mixed with straw, adobe, timber and bark. There has been significant improvement in the capacity of rural housing to resist earthquakes and other natural disasters, and in the comfort level.

  Efforts have been made in several areas:

  ? improving the living environment in cities and the countryside;

  ? carrying out environmental remediation and urban repair;

  ? promoting energy-saving architecture and green architecture;

  ? renovating existing buildings with energy-saving facilities;

  ? furthering domestic sewage treatment and building a system of collecting, transporting and disposing of household garbage in rural areas.

  By 2018, 84 percent of all administrative villages were provided with garbage treatment.

  人民出行更加便利快捷。新中国成立初期,国家迅速修复了被破坏的运输路线,恢复了水陆空交通。1953年至1977年,交通运输业全民所有制单位基本建设投资累计完成840亿元,先后建设了青藏公路、武汉长江大桥、首都国际机场、京沪铁路等重大项目,改变了落后闭塞的交通面貌。20世纪90年代后,国家将加快交通运输发展作为重要战略目标,持续加大投资力度,大力推进综合运输体系建设,交通网络日益完善,运输能力和运输效率明显提升,不断满足人民出行需求。截至2018年,全国铁路营业里程达13.1万公里,比1949年增长5倍,其中高速铁路达2.9万公里,占世界高铁总量60%以上,2018年铁路客运发送量达33.75亿人次,其中动车组列车发送旅客20.05亿人次;全国公路实现跨越式发展,总里程达485万公里,其中高速公路通车里程达14.3万公里,2018年全国道路营运客运量达136.7亿人次,97.1%的建制村通了客车;农村地区有99.9%的户所在自然村通公路,实现“县县通公路”;内河航道里程达12.7万公里;定期航班航线里程达838万公里,比1950年增长736倍。

  More convenient public transport. After 1949, the newly founded PRC took quick action to repair the transport routes damaged in war, and restored transport by water, land and air. From 1953 to 1977, a total investment of RMB84 billion was made in the construction of transport businesses owned by the people. Key projects such as the Qinghai-Tibet Highway, Wuhan Yangtze River Bridge, Capital International Airport, and Beijing-Shanghai Railway were completed, significantly improving the country’s transport links. Since the 1990s China has accelerated construction of transport infrastructure and made it a key strategic goal, and continued to increase investment to build a comprehensive transport system. With an improved transport network, the country’s transport capacity and efficiency have seen marked growth, enabling better services to travellers.

  By the end of 2018, China’s rail network had grown to 131,000 km, up by 500 percent from 1949, and the high-speed rail network had reached 29,000 km, accounting for more than 60 percent of the world’s total. In 2018, the number of passengers travelling by rail reached 3.38 billion, 2.01 billion of whom travelled by CRH (China Railways High-speed) trains. China has achieved leapfrog development in its road network, which, by 2018, had reached 4.85 million km in length, including 143,000 km of expressways. In 2018 13.67 billion individual trips were made by road in China, and 97.1 percent of administrative villages had bus services. Every county in China now has road access, and 99.9 percent of villages are connected to the road network. Total inland waterway mileage had reached 127,000 km. The mileage of regular flights had reached 8.38 million km, a 736-fold increase over 1950.

  国民健康水平持续提高。新中国成立前,中国医疗卫生水平很低,广大农村和边远地区缺医少药。70年来,中国政府建立健全医疗卫生体系,不断加大公共卫生领域投入,提高医疗科技水平,推进健康中国建设,努力为人民群众提供全生命周期的卫生与健康服务。中国人均预期寿命从新中国成立之初的35岁提高到2018年的77岁,提前完成联合国千年发展目标确定的指标,居民健康水平总体上优于高收入国家平均水平。2018年,全国共有卫生机构99.7万个,比1949年增长271.78倍;共有卫生人员1230万人,比1949年增长22.73倍。2018年与1949年相比,每千人口卫生人员数由1.00人增长到8.81人,每千人口医疗机构床位数由0.16张增长到6.03张,覆盖城乡的基层医疗卫生服务体系基本建成。国家基本公共卫生服务项目持续推进,2014年5岁以下儿童乙肝病毒感染率降至0.32%以下,2015年适龄儿童国家免疫规划疫苗接种率达90%以上。重点传染病和地方病防治工作取得历史性成就,2000年实现了无脊髓灰质炎目标、基本消除碘缺乏病目标,2007年实现了消除丝虫病目标,2012年消除了新生儿破伤风。加强癌症防治工作,近10年间全国总体癌症的5年生存率由30.9%提高至40.5%。全民健身运动蓬勃发展,截至2018年,全国体育场地总数超过315.8万个,人均体育场地面积超过1.84平方米,超过4亿人经常参加体育锻炼。

  Better health for the people. Before 1949 China suffered from a very low level of medical and health services, and doctors and medicine were rare resources in the countryside and remote areas. Over the past 70 years, the Chinese government has established a sound medical and health care system, continued to increase financial input for advancing public health and medical technology, and launched the Health China initiative, increasing public access to health services throughout the life cycle. Life expectancy in China rose from 35 in the early 1950s to 77 in 2018, meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals ahead of schedule, and the people generally enjoy better health than people in high-income countries.

  In 2018, the number of health service institutions increased to 997,000, a 271.78-fold increase from 1949, with health professionals growing 22.73-fold to 12.3 million. From 1949 to 2018, the number of health professionals per 1,000 people increased from 1 to 8.81, and the number of beds in medical institutions per 1,000 people grew from 0.16 to 6.03. A community-level health service system covering urban and rural areas is in place.

  Basic public health services have improved, with the HBV infection rate among children under five dropping below 0.32 percent in 2014, and the national vaccination coverage among children topping 90 percent in 2015. Historic progress has been made in the prevention and control of major infectious diseases and endemic diseases, eliminating polio and basically eliminating iodine deficiency in 2000, filariasis in 2007, and neonatal tetanus in 2012. The prevention and treatment of cancer has been strengthened. The five-year cancer survival rate in the past decade grew from 30.9 percent to 40.5 percent.

  The national fitness program has thrived. As of 2018, China had more than 3.2 million sports venues (a floor space of 1.84 sq m per capita) across the country, and more than 400 million people took part in regular exercises.

  社会救助制度不断完善。新中国成立之初,各地经济停滞、民生凋敝,灾民、贫民、无依无靠的孤老残幼等城乡贫困人口众多。中国共产党和中国政府及时开展临时性、应急性救助,为贫困人口发放款物,妥善解决了历史遗留问题。此后,城市的就业单位和农村生产大队承担了主要的社会保障功能,国家和集体对五保户、孤残人员等特殊困难群体进行救济。改革开放后,中国进一步建立完善城乡救济制度,对特殊困难群体给予救济。经过多年发展,中国的社会救助形成了以最低生活保障、特困人员救助供养、受灾人员救助、医疗救助、教育救助、住房救助、就业救助以及临时救助为主体,以社会力量参与为补充的制度体系。截至2019年3月,城市低保平均标准为每人每月590.6元,农村低保平均标准为每人每年4953.1元,所有涉农县市农村低保标准全部达到或超过国家扶贫标准;农村特困人员基本生活平均标准为每人每年6693元,城市特困人员基本生活平均标准为每人每年9096元。中共十八大以来,截至2019年8月15日,针对各种重特大自然灾害共启动国家救灾应急响应157次,累计下拨中央财政自然灾害生活补助资金602.65亿元。2013年至2018年,年均紧急转移安置900余万人次,救助受灾群众7000多万人次,恢复重建因灾倒损民房50余万间。2018年,共资助7673.9万困难群众参加基本医疗保险,实施住院和门诊救助5361万人次,救助生活无着的流浪乞讨人员155万人次。

  Improved social assistance. In the early 1950s, China was in a state of economic stagnation. The people were poor. There was a large number of victims of natural disasters or disability; many were old people or orphans who had no family to turn to. The CPC and the Chinese government carried out emergency assistance, giving money and supplies to the poor and cleaning the mess left by old China. Later, social security was mainly provided by employers in urban areas and production brigades in rural areas, and the state and collectives offered assistance to special groups including orphans, people with disabilities, and rural people eligible for the “Five Guarantees” (food, clothing, medical care, housing and burial expenses). Since 1978, the year when reform and opening up was launched, China has further improved its assistance system in both urban and rural areas, and provided relief to groups with special difficulties. Through years of effort, China has formed a social assistance system supplemented by public participation, with subsistence allowances, disaster relief, medical assistance, education assistance, housing assistance, employment assistance, temporary assistance, and assistance and support for people in extreme difficulty.

  As of March 2019, the average subsistence allowance for urban residents was RMB591 per month, and that for rural residents was RMB4,953 per annum. All rural subsistence allowance standards at county (city) level reached or exceeded the national poverty line. People living in extreme difficulty received RMB6,693 per person per annum in rural areas, and RMB9,096 per person per annum in urban areas. From the 18th CPC National Congress to August 15, 2019 China launched 157 national emergency responses in the wake of major natural disasters, issuing a total of RMB60.27 billion as living subsidies for disaster relief from central funds. Between 2013 and 2018, on a yearly basis the government temporarily relocated more than 9 million people affected by disasters, provided relief to more than 70 million people, and restored and rebuilt more than 500,000 damaged houses. In 2018, the government offered subsidies for 76.74 million poor people on subscribing to the basic medical insurance system, medical assistance to 53.61 million inpatients and outpatients, and assistance to 1.55 million homeless persons and beggars.

  邮电通信水平全面提升。新中国成立之初,邮路总长度仅为70.6万公里,长途明线仅为14.6万对公里。70年来,邮电通信业规模不断扩大,电信基础设施建设加快推进,信息化网络化高速发展,人民通信权利得到切实保障。截至2018年,全国邮政和快递营业网点达27.5万处,比1949年增长9.6倍;邮路和快递服务网路总长度达3945万公里,比1949年增长近55倍;全国互联网上网人数达8.29亿,互联网普及率达59.6%,网民通过手机接入互联网的比例高达98.6%。截至2019年6月,光缆线路总长度达4545万公里,光纤用户占比超90%,4G基站数达444.8万个,全球最大规模的固定宽带网络和4G网络基本建成;全国移动电话用户达15.86亿户,其中移动宽带用户(即3G和4G用户)总数达13.55亿户,4G用户规模为12.3亿户;固定宽带家庭普及率达91.8%,移动宽带用户普及率达97.1%;行政村通光纤比例、通4G比例均超过98%,位居全球先进行列。2019年6月6日,工业和信息化部发放了5G商用牌照,正式开启5G商用。

  Improved postal and telecommunications services. At the beginning of the PRC, China had only 706,000 km of postal routes, with 146,000 km of parallel, long-distance open-wire lines. Over the past 70 years, postal and telecommunications services have kept expanding, with quick progress in telecommunications infrastructure. IT applications and the internet have been developing rapidly, and people’s right to communication has been fully guaranteed.

  As of 2018, China had 275,000 postal and courier outlets, a 9.6-fold increase over 1949. The total length of postal routes ahd courier service networks reached 39.45 million km, about a 55-fold increase over 1949. Some 829 million people accessed the internet, 59.6 percent of citizens used the internet, and 98.6 percent went online via mobile phone. As of June 2019, the total length of fiber optic cable lines reached 45.45 million km, and 90 percent of internet users were fiber broadband subscribers. With 4.45 million 4G base stations, China has established the world’s largest fixed broadband network and 4G network. Of the 1,586 million mobile phone users (3G and 4G users), 1,230 million were 4G users. Fixed broadband networks connected 91.8 percent of all households, and 97.1 percent of the population was using mobile broadband services. More than 98 percent of administrative villages had access to fiber optic cables and 4G services, taking the lead in the world in this regard. On June 6, 2019, with the issuing of the 5G commercial license by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, 5G services entered the market.

  四、切实保障人民各项权利

  IV. Effectively Ensuring That People Enjoy Their Rights

  新中国成立70年来,人民的经济、政治、社会、文化、环境权利保障水平不断提升,各项人权实现全面发展。

  Over the 70 years since the founding of the PRC, China has continued to improve its protection of the people’s economic, political, social, cultural, and environmental rights, and ensured the development of human rights in all respects.

  尊重和保障人身权利和人格尊严。人身权利和人格尊严是人权保障的基本内容。70年来,中国始终注重人身权利和人格权利的保障。宪法确认了公民人格权。中共十九大再次强调保护人民人身权、财产权、人格权,彰显了保护人格尊严、促进人的全面发展的人文关怀。民法对人格权作了专门规定。大力推进户籍制度改革,放宽户口迁徙政策限制,促进有能力在城镇稳定就业的常住人口有序实现市民化。严格依法保障住宅不受侵犯、通信自由和信息安全。

  Personal rights and dignity are well respected and protected. Personal rights and dignity are the basic components of human rights, so China has consistently attached great importance to protecting such rights over the past 70 years. The Constitution of the PRC states that the personal dignity of citizens of the PRC is inviolable. The 19th CPC National Congress again emphasized the protection of personal rights, property rights and right to dignity, demonstrating the humane view of protecting people’s personal dignity and promoting the well-rounded development of the individual person. The Civil Law in particular elaborates the right to dignity. China is now accelerating the reform of the household registration system. It has relaxed restrictions on the change of domicile, enabling eligible permanent residents with stable employment in urban areas to localize their residency. Inviolability of residence, freedom of correspondence and security of information are fully protected by law.

  充分保障劳动者各项权利。新中国成立前,城镇劳动力多数处于失业状态。1949年末,全国城乡就业人员18082万人,其中城镇就业人员仅有1533万人,城镇失业率高达23.6%。70年来,就业状况不断改善。1978年末,就业人员达到40152万人。改革开放以来,随着经济发展和就业优先政策的实施,就业总量大幅增加。特别是中共十八大以来,连续6年实现城镇新增就业1300万人以上。2018年,全国就业人数增加到77586万人。城镇登记失业率长期处于4.1%以内的较低水平。劳动者工资支付保障、同工同酬、休息休假、职业安全卫生、女性劳动者特别保护、依法参加和组织工会、参与企事业单位民主管理等各项权利得到依法保障。各地普遍建立最低工资标准调整机制和评估机制,保障了劳动者及其赡养人口的基本生活。目前,劳动者每年共享有115日的休息日和节假日,以及5日至15日的带薪年休假,还按规定享受产假、婚丧假、探亲假等假期。全国已建立基层工会组织数由1952年的20.7万个增加到2018年的273.1万个,工会会员由1952年的1002.3万人增加到2018年的2.95亿人。

  China fully safeguards workers’ rights. Before the founding of the PRC, a large part of the urban workforce was unemployed. At the end of 1949 there were 180.82 million people across the country in employment, of whom only 15.33 million worked in urban areas. The urban unemployment rate was 23.6 percent. The employment situation has steadily improved over the past 70 years. By the end of 1978, the year when the policy of reform and opening up was adopted, the employed population had reached 401.52 million. After that, thanks to rapid economic growth and a policy that prioritizes employment, China’s employed population expanded rapidly. During the six years from the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012 to 2018, over 13 million new jobs were created each year, and the total employed population in 2018 reached 775.86 million. The registered unemployment rate remained at a low level below 4.1 percent for a long period of time.

  The guarantee for remuneration for labor, right to equal pay for equal work, right to rest and leisure, right to occupational safety and health, right to join in and organize a labor union, and right to participate in the democratic management of businesses and public institutions are protected by law, as is women workers’ right to special protection. Universal mechanisms to adjust and assess the minimum wage have been established across the country, so as to ensure the basic living conditions of workers and their dependents. At present, each worker is entitled to 115 rest days and public holidays, and 5 to 15 days of paid holidays each year, as well as maternity leave, wedding leave, funeral leave and family reunion leave in line with the regulations. The number of primary-level labor unions rose from 207,000 in 1952 to 2.73 million in 2018 and their members grew from 10 million to 295 million during the same period.

  建立起世界上覆盖人口最多的社会保障制度。新中国成立之初,社会保障尚属空白。20世纪50年代至70年代,开始由国家和单位对城镇职工提供劳保等福利,并由集体对农民实行一定保障。改革开放以来,逐步建立了覆盖城乡的社会保障体系,形成了世界上规模最大的社会保障安全网,社会保障水平不断提高。截至2019年3月,全国参加基本养老保险人数达94118万人,参加工伤保险人数达23894万人,参加失业保险人数达19697万人,参加生育保险人数超过2亿人,包括职工基本医疗保险、城乡居民基本医疗保险在内的基本医疗保险覆盖超过13亿人,基本实现全民医保。自2005年起,连续15年大幅提高企业退休人员基本养老金水平。城乡居民基本医保人均财政补助标准由2012年的240元提高到2019年的520元。自2016年起,探索建立长期护理保险制度。社会保障领域公共服务能力不断提高,2016年启动跨省异地就医直接结算,越来越多群众享受到直接结算便利。截至2019年3月,社会保障卡持卡人数约12.5亿人,覆盖全国89.6%人口。

  China has established a social security system that covers the largest population in the world. There was no social security system in China when the PRC was founded. Between the 1950s and the 1970s, the state and employers began providing labor protection and other forms of welfare, and rural collectives provided peasants with a certain level of social security. After launching reform and opening up China gradually set up the world’s largest social security system covering people of both rural and urban areas. It has continued to make improvements. By March 2019 basic endowment insurance covered 941 million people, work-related injury insurance 239 million, unemployment insurance 197 million, and birth insurance more than 200 million. The basic medical insurance system, including basic medical insurance for workers and for rural and non-working urban residents, now covers more than 1.3 billion people – almost China’s entire population. China has substantially raised the amount of the basic pension of enterprise retirees every year since 2005. Per capita government subsidies for basic medical insurance for rural and non-working urban residents rose from RMB240 in 2012 to RMB520 in 2019. China pioneered a long-term nursing insurance system in 2016. China is improving its capacity to offer social security services. In 2016, it launched a real-time settlement of medical expenses for medical treatment incurred outside the provincial-level administrative area where the patient’s medical insurance is registered, and this benefited a growing number of people. By March 2019, there were about 1.25 billion social security card holders, covering 89.6 percent of China’s population.

  教育普及水平大幅提高。新中国成立之初,教育水平低,人口文化素质差,小学净入学率和初中毛入学率仅分别为20%和3%,高校在校生仅有11.7万人,全国80%的人口是文盲。新中国高度重视发展教育事业,到1978年,学龄儿童入学率达到95.5%;1982年,粗文盲率降至22.8%。改革开放以来,中国大力实施教育优先发展战略,加快推进教育现代化,切实保障公民平等接受教育的权利。2018年,学前三年毛入园率达81.7%,普惠性幼儿园在园幼儿覆盖率达73.1%;小学学龄儿童净入学率达99.95%,初中阶段毛入学率达100.9%,九年义务教育巩固率达94.2%。高中阶段教育基本普及,2018年全国高中阶段在校生3934.7万人。高等教育即将跨入普及化发展阶段,2018年全国普通本专科招生791万人,高等教育在学总规模达3833万人,毛入学率达48.1%。建成现代职业教育和继续教育体系,2018年全国共有1.16万所职业学校,中、高职招生达925.9万人,在校生达2689万人。

  Universal education expands remarkably. In the early days of the PRC, China’s education system was poor and the general level of education was low. The net primary education enrolment rate was 20 percent and the gross junior secondary education enrolment rate was only 3 percent. There were only 117,000 college students and 80 percent of the population was illiterate. The new Chinese government paid close attention to the development of education. The enrolment rate of school-age children reached 95.5 percent in 1978, and the overall rate of illiteracy had dropped to 22.8 percent by 1982. Since the launch of reform and opening up, China has invested an enormous effort in implementing the education-first strategy, to modernize education and guarantee equal access to education for all. In 2018 the gross three-year preschool education enrolment rate reached 81.7 percent, and the children enrolled in government-funded and privately-run non-profit kindergartens accounted for 73.1 percent of all kindergarteners. The net primary education enrolment rate was 99.95 percent, the gross junior secondary education enrolment rate was 100.9 percent, and the completion rate of the free nine-year compulsory education was 94.2 percent. Availability of senior secondary education in China is now basically universal. In 2018, senior high schools had a total of 39.35 million students on campus. Higher education is becoming universal. In 2018, with 7.91 million newly enrolled students, there were a total of 38.33 million students studying in colleges and universities, representing a gross college enrolment rate of 48.1 percent. A modern vocational education and continuing education system has been established. In 2018, there were 11,600 vocational schools across China, with a total of 26.89 million students, including 9.26 million newly enrolled.

  公共文化服务更好惠及人民。新中国成立之初,文化事业极其落后,公共文化服务设施极其短缺,1949年全国只有55个公共图书馆、896个文化馆、21个博物馆。经过70年的持续努力,社会主义文化事业全面繁荣,覆盖城乡的公共文化体系逐步建立,公共文化设施逐步实现免费开放,文化产业快速发展。截至2018年,全国共有公共图书馆3176个,比1949年增长56.7倍;文化馆(群众艺术馆)3328个、乡镇(街道)文化站41193个、村(社区)综合性文化服务中心340560个,每万人拥有公共图书馆面积和群众文化设施面积分别为114.4平方米和306.9平方米;博物馆总数达5354家,约每26万人拥有1座博物馆,其中4743家博物馆免费开放。2018年,全国广播、电视节目综合人口覆盖率分别达98.94%、99.25%;全年出版各类图书95亿册(张),比1950年增长34倍。公共数字文化服务能力大幅提升,截至2018年,公共图书馆电子图书达8.08亿册,计算机22.35万台,其中供读者使用的电子阅览终端达14.63万台;公共数字文化工程累计建设公共数字文化资源总量约1200TB。加强科普工作,提升公民科学文化素质。

  Public cultural services benefit more people. When the PRC was founded in 1949, provision of public cultural services was quite backward, with few public cultural facilities across the whole country – only 55 public libraries, 896 cultural centers, and 21 museums. Thanks to a constant effort over the past 70 years, socialist cultural undertakings in China are flourishing in every respect. A public cultural service system is in place, an increasing number of public cultural facilities are open to the public for free, and the cultural industry is developing rapidly.

  In 2018 China had the following facilities and infrastructure:

  ? 3,176 public libraries (57.7 times of that in 1949)

  ? 3,328 cultural centers (art centers)

  ? 41,193 township (sub-district) cultural stations

  ? 340,560 community (village) centers

  ? 11.4 sq m of public library space per 1,000 people

  ? 30.7 sq m of public cultural facilities per 1,000 people

  ? 5,354 museums (4,743 open to the public for free) – one museum per 260,000 head of population

  ? 98.94 percent of the total population was covered by the broadcasting network

  ? 99.25 percent had access to television

  ? 9.5 billion copies of books were published (35 times of that in 1950).

  It also had a significant capability to provide digital cultural services through public libraries, including 808 million e-books, 223,500 computers (including 146,300 e-reading terminals), and 1,200 terabytes of public digital cultural resources created through public digital cultural service projects. Work to popularize science has been further intensified to improve the public’s understanding and appreciation of science and culture.

  人民获得了真正的民主权利。中国宪法明确规定,中华人民共和国的一切权力属于人民。人民当家作主,是社会主义民主政治的本质和核心。人民行使国家权力的机关是全国人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会。坚持选举实行普遍、平等、直接选举和间接选举相结合以及差额选举的原则,凡年满18周岁的中国公民,不分民族、种族、性别、职业、家庭出身、宗教信仰、教育程度、财产状况、居住期限,除依法被剥夺政治权利的人外,都有选举权和被选举权。根据国情和实际不断完善选举制度,逐步实现城乡按相同人口比例选举人大代表,并保证各地区、各民族、各方面都有适当数量的代表。在2016年开始的全国县乡两级人民代表大会换届选举中,登记选民10亿多人,直接选举产生近250万名县乡两级人民代表大会代表。城乡基层民主有序发展,以城乡村(居)民自治为核心,民主选举、民主协商、民主决策、民主管理、民主监督为主要内容的基层群众自治制度基本建立并不断完善。

  Chinese people enjoy real democracy. The Constitution clearly provides that all power in the PRC belongs to the people. The essence and the core principle of the socialist democratic political system is that the people are the masters of the country. The NPC and local people’s congresses at various levels are the organs through which the people exercise state power. The principles of universality, equality, direct election, indirect election, and competitive election are applied. All citizens who have reached the age of 18 have the right to vote and stand for election, regardless of ethnicity, race, gender, occupation, family background, religious belief, education, property status, or length of residence, except persons deprived of political rights in accordance with the law. In line with the national conditions and reality, China has improved the election system to gradually ensure that both rural and urban areas have the same proportion of deputies from the represented population in elections of people’s congress deputies, and that all regions, ethnic groups, and sectors of society have a certain proportion of deputies. In the elections of deputies to the people’s congresses at county and township levels beginning in 2016, more than 1 billion constituents cast votes for nearly 2.5 million deputies.

  Orderly development is seen in community-level democracy. A community-level self-governance system, featuring self-governance by urban and rural residents, and democratic election, consultation, decision-making, management, and supervision, is now in place and continues to improve.

  切实保障人民知情权、参与权、表达权、监督权。70年来,中国建立健全常态化的法律草案公开征求意见工作机制,不断完善政务公开制度体系,拓宽公众参与立法和重大行政决策的渠道。截至2018年,国家立法机关共有172件法律草案向社会公开征求意见,收到1.5亿多人次提出的510多万条意见。健全依法决策机制,把公众参与、专家论证、风险评估、合法性审查、集体讨论决定确定为重大行政决策法定程序,提高决策科学化、民主化、法治化水平。推动协商民主广泛多层制度化发展,不断规范协商内容、协商程序,拓展协商民主形式,增加协商密度,提高协商成效,以事关经济社会发展全局和涉及群众切身利益的实际问题为内容,开展广泛协商。截至2019年3月,全国政协共收到141807件提案,立案130299件,编刊及转送社情民意信息12096件,大多数提案的建议得到采纳和落实。建立健全信访制度,国家信访信息系统联通了全国各级信访机构、9万多个职能部门和乡镇(街道)、41个中央和国家机关部委,建立人民建议征集制度。畅通民意表达渠道,创新群众监督方式,建立便捷高效的网络表达平台,公民在网络上积极建言献策,表达诉求,有序参与社会管理。坚持和发展“小事不出村,大事不出镇,矛盾不上交”的枫桥经验,不断深化人民调解、行政调解、行业性专业性调解、司法调解衔接联动,完善矛盾纠纷多元化解机制,让群众及时、就地解决问题。全国人大常委会开展执法检查,人民政协积极探索和完善民主监督机制,就决策执行中的问题提出批评和建议。

  China protects people’s rights to know, to participate, to express, and to supervise. A mechanism through which public opinion is consulted in drafting laws has been set up and improved. Transparency of administrative work of the government is enhanced, and the channels for public participation in legislation and major administrative decision-making are constantly broadening. By 2018 the state legislatures had solicited public opinion on 172 draft laws, receiving 5.1 million comments from 150 million people.

  A mechanism in which decisions are made in accordance with the law has been improved. This takes public participation, expert discussion, risk assessment, review of legality, and group discussion as legal procedures in major administrative decision-making, so as to make decision-making more reasonable, democratic and law-based. Democratic consultation is applied extensively as a mechanism at multiple levels. The content and procedure of consultation are regulated, and the forms, frequency, and effect of consultation are extending and increasing. Extensive consultation is conducted on matters concerning overall economic and social development and related to the vital interests of the people. By March 2019, the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) had received 141,807 proposals and 130,299 of them were placed on file, published and transmitted 12,096 samples of public opinion, and adopted and carried out most of the proposals.

  A public complaints reporting system has been established and improved. The national public complaints information system links public complaints and proposals administrative organs at all levels with more than 90,000 functional departments, town and township governments and sub-district offices, and 41 departments of the CPC and ministries of the central government. A people’s proposal soliciting system has been set up. China provides smooth channels through which people express their opinion, offers innovative ways of public supervision, and puts in place convenient and effective online platforms for citizens to offer their views and advice, express their demands, and participate in social management in an orderly manner.

  The Experience of Fengqiao, a town in Zhuji City, Zhejiang Province, is a good example of successful dispute resolution, by which “trivial matters are solved in the villages, major problems are settled in the town, and no conflict are passed on to the higher authorities.” This model is being rolled out. People’s mediation is closely linked to and synergizes with administrative, industry- and profession-based, and judicial mediation, and a diverse conflict and dispute solving mechanism is being improved, so that people can solve their problems quickly and on the site. The NPC Standing Committee carries out examinations of law enforcement. The CPPCC actively explores and improves the democratic supervision system and offers criticism and suggestions regarding problems arising in implementation of the decisions made by the Party or government.

  依法保障宗教信仰自由。中国实行宗教信仰自由政策,坚持从本国国情和宗教实际出发,保障公民宗教信仰自由权利,构建积极健康的宗教关系,维护宗教和睦与社会和谐。中国政府依照宪法和法律,支持各宗教坚持独立自主自办原则,各宗教团体、宗教教职人员和信教公民自主办理宗教事业;对涉及国家利益和社会公共利益的宗教事务进行管理,但不干涉宗教内部事务。国家对待各宗教一律平等,一视同仁,不以行政力量发展或禁止某个宗教,任何宗教都不能超越其他宗教在法律上享有特殊地位。中国有佛教、道教、伊斯兰教、天主教和基督教等宗教信教公民近2亿人,宗教教职人员38万余人,依法登记的宗教活动场所14.4万处,宗教院校92所。

  China protects freedom of religious belief in accordance with the law. China follows policies on freedom of religious belief. Based on the conditions of the country and reality of its religions, China protects citizens’ freedom of religious belief, builds active and healthy religious relations, and maintains religious and social harmony. In accordance with the Constitution and the law, the Chinese government supports all religions in upholding the principle of independence and self-management. It also supports religious groups, clerical personnel, and believers in managing their own religious affairs. The government manages religious affairs involving national and public interests but does not interfere in the internal affairs of religions. The state treats all religions fairly and equally, and does not exercise administrative power to encourage or ban any religion. No religion is given preferential treatment over other religions or enjoys special legal privileges. The major religions practiced in China are Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism and Protestant Christianity, with nearly 200 million believers and more than 380,000 clerical personnel. At present, there are about 144,000 places of worship registered for religious activities and 92 religious schools in China.

  环境权利保障日益加强。70年来,随着经济发展和工业化加速推进,中国将环境保护工作纳入各级政府的职能范围,及时确立了保护环境的基本国策,建立并不断完善生态环境保护体制机制和法律法规政策制度体系,提出走可持续发展道路,大力发展循环经济,不断加快清洁低碳化进程。特别是中共十八大以来,中国将生态文明建设纳入“五位一体”总体布局,坚持人与自然和谐共生,大力倡导绿色发展,加强生态环境治理,全面打响大气、水、土壤污染防治攻坚战,实施环保督察,“绿水青山就是金山银山”的理念深入人心,生态环境质量持续改善。2018年,天然气、水电、核电、风电、太阳能发电等清洁能源消费量占能源消费总量的比重为22.1%,比1978年提高15.5个百分点;全国338个地级及以上城市可吸入颗粒物(PM10)平均浓度比2013年下降26.8%,首批实施《环境空气质量标准》的74个城市细颗粒物(PM2.5)平均浓度比2013年下降42%,二氧化硫平均浓度比2013年下降68%;全国地表水优良水质断面比例增至71%,劣Ⅴ类比例降至6.7%。全国生态保护红线初步划定,保护了约95%珍稀濒危物种及其栖息地,以及约45%全国植被固碳量。

  Environmental rights are better protected. Over the past 70 years, with rapid economic growth and industrialization, China has determined environmental protection as a national policy and included it in the functions and work of government. It has set up and continued to improve the mechanisms, policies, and legal system required for environmental protection. It advocates sustainable development, promotes a circular economy, and accelerates the process of clean and low-carbon transformation. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, China has determined environmental progress as a point of the Five-point Strategy. China advocates green development and harmony between human and nature. It is intensifying environmental governance, addressing the thorniest problems in the fight against air, water and soil contamination, and carrying out strict supervision over environmental protection work. The idea that lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets has ingrained into people’s minds. Through such efforts, China is rapidly improving the quality of its environment.

  In 2018 clean energy resources, including natural gas, water, nuclear, wind and solar energy, made up 22.1 percent of China’s total energy consumption, an increase of 15.5 percentage points over 1978. Between 2013 and 2018, the average PM10 intensity in 338 cities at and above the prefecture level fell by 26.8 percent, and the average PM2.5 and SO2 intensity in the 74 cities that took the lead in implementing the Ambient Air Quality Standards fell by 42 percent and 68 percent respectively. The proportion of excellent and good quality surface water increased to 71 percent while that of inferior Class V surface water dropped to 6.7 percent. An environmental protection zoning map has been drawn up that covers 95 percent of China’s rare and endangered species and their habitats and about 45 percent of carbon sequestration by vegetation.

  五、重视保障特定群体权利

  V. Protecting the Rights of Special Groups

  新中国成立70年来,中国结合国情采取有针对性的措施,切实保障少数民族、妇女、儿童、老年人和残疾人的合法权益,使他们能以平等的地位和均等的机会充分参与社会生活,共享物质文明和精神文明成果。

  Over the 70 years since the founding of the PRC, China has, based on its conditions, adopted targeted measures to effectively protect the legitimate rights and interests of ethnic minority groups, women, children, the elderly, and persons with disabilities, ensuring their equal status and giving them the equal opportunity to participate in social life and enjoy the fruits of the country’s material and cultural progress.

  有效保障少数民族参与国家事务管理的权利。55个少数民族均有本民族的全国人大代表和全国政协委员,十三届全国人大代表中,少数民族代表438名,占14.7%。近年来全国公务员考试录用少数民族考生的比例保持在13%以上,高于少数民族人口占全国人口8.49%的比例。各民族自治地方依法享有广泛的自治权,包括政治、经济、教育、科学、文化、卫生等各项事业的自主管理权。民族自治地方的人民代表大会除享有地方国家权力机关的权力外,还有权依照当地民族的政治、经济和文化特点,制定自治条例和单行条例。155个民族自治地方的人民代表大会常务委员会中,均有实行区域自治民族的公民担任主任或者副主任;民族自治地方政府的主席、州长、县长或旗长,均由实行区域自治民族的公民担任。

  China effectively guarantees ethnic minority rights in administering state affairs. All 55 ethnic minority groups have deputies at the NPC and members in the CPPCC National Committee. The 13th NPC has 438 deputies from ethnic minority groups, accounting for 14.7 percent of the total number of deputies. In recent years, among the candidates passing the national civil service admission examination, ethnic minority candidates made up more than 13 percent, higher than the ethnic minority population ratio in the country (8.49 percent). The ethnic autonomous areas enjoy the right of autonomy in a wide range of fields as prescribed by law: politics, economy, education, science and technology, culture and health. In addition to the powers assigned to local authorities, the people’s congresses of ethnic autonomous areas also have the power to enact regulations on the exercise of autonomy and other separate regulations in the light of the political, economic and cultural characteristics of the ethnic group or ethnic groups in the areas concerned.

  The standing committees of all the people’s congresses in the 155 ethnic autonomous areas have members of ethnic groups exercising regional autonomy acting as director or deputy director. The chairpersons of autonomous regions, governors of autonomous prefectures, and heads of autonomous counties are all citizens from the ethnic groups exercising regional autonomy of the said areas.

  少数民族和民族地区经济社会实现跨越式发展。70年来,国家把支持少数民族和民族地区加快经济社会发展作为国家发展建设的重要内容,通过实施西部大开发、兴边富民行动、扶持人口较少民族、少数民族特色村镇保护与发展、对口支援以及制定少数民族事业专项规划等战略举措,加大投入力度,坚决打赢民族地区脱贫攻坚战,有力地促进了少数民族和民族地区经济社会发展。2018年,内蒙古、广西、西藏、宁夏、新疆5个自治区和云南、贵州、青海3个省的地区生产总值达90576亿元,同比增长7.2%,高于全国0.6个百分点;贫困人口减少到603万,贫困发生率下降到4.0%。民族地区基础设施、公共服务和百姓生活日新月异。

  The ethnic minorities and ethnic minority areas have leapfrogged in social and economic development. Over the last 70 years, the state has treated the social and economic development of ethnic minorities and ethnic minority areas as an important element of national development. Through a series of strategic measures such as large-scale development of western China, actions to enrich border areas and their residents, efforts to develop smaller ethnic groups, efforts to preserve and promote ethnic minority style villages and towns, paired-up assistance, and special planning for ethnic minority undertakings, the Chinese government has increased its investment in the fight against poverty in ethnic minority areas, which has given a significant boost to local social and economic development. The total GDP of the five autonomous regions of Inner Mongolia, Guangxi, Tibet, Ningxia and Xinjiang, and the three provinces of Yunnan, Guizhou and Qinghai where there are a large number of ethnic minorities reached RMB9.06 trillion in 2018, an increase of 7.2 percent over 2017, which was 0.6 percentage point higher than the national average. The impoverished population in these regions dropped to 6.03 million, with the incidence of poverty reduced to 4 percent. Infrastructure, public services, and living conditions in ethnic minority areas are seeing rapid progress.

  少数民族和民族地区教育事业快速发展。中国通过发展各级各类民族学校,举办内地预科班、民族班,对少数民族考生升学予以照顾,在广大农牧区推行寄宿制教育,着力办好民族地区高等教育等举措,促进教育公平,保障少数民族受教育权利。目前,民族地区已全面普及从小学到初中9年义务教育,西藏自治区、新疆维吾尔自治区的南疆地区等实现了从学前到高中阶段15年免费教育。2018年,新疆维吾尔自治区学前三年毛入园率已达到96.86%,小学净入学率达到99.94%。

  Education for ethnic minorities and in ethnic minority areas has developed rapidly. China has adopted a series of measures to improve educational equality and ensure ethnic minorities’ right to education. These measures include: opening schools for students from ethnic minority groups, opening preparatory courses and special classes for ethnic minorities at colleges and schools in other provinces and municipalities, giving preferential treatment to students from ethnic minority groups when they take exams to enter higher levels of education, running residential schools in farming and pastoral areas, and prioritizing ethnic minority areas in higher education development. Nine-year compulsory education (elementary and junior high schools) is universal in ethnic minority areas. In Tibet Autonomous Region and south Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, students are exempt from charges for education for a total of 15 years from preschool to senior high school. In Xinjiang in 2018, the gross preschool education enrolment rate reached 96.86 percent and the net primary education enrolment rate was 99.94 percent.

  少数民族使用和发展本民族语言文字的自由得到保障。在中国,除回族和满族通用汉语文外,其他53个少数民族都有本民族语言,有22个少数民族共使用28种文字。国家依法保障少数民族语言文字在行政司法、新闻出版、广播影视、文化教育等各领域的合法使用。建设中国少数民族濒危语言数据库,设立并实施“中国语言资源保护工程”。截至2019年3月,民族自治地方共设置广播电台、电视台、广播电视台等播出机构714个。全国各级播出机构共开办民族语电视频道46套,民族语广播56套。新疆维吾尔自治区使用汉、维吾尔、哈萨克、柯尔克孜、蒙古、锡伯6种语言文字出版报纸、图书、音像制品和电子出版物,使用多语言、多文种播送电视和广播节目等。国家在民族地区实施双语教育,基本建立起从学前到高中阶段的双语教育体系。截至2018年,少数民族双语教育的中小学共6521所,接受双语教育的在校生309.3万人,双语教育的专任教师20.6万人。

  The freedom of ethnic minorities to use and develop their own spoken and written languages is fully protected. In China, with the exception of the Hui and Manchu peoples who generally use Han Chinese, the other 53 ethnic minorities have their own spoken languages, and 22 groups use a total of 28 written scripts. The state protects by law the legitimate use of the spoken and written languages of ethnic minorities in the areas of administration and judicature, press and publishing, radio, film and television, and culture and education. It has established a database for the endangered languages of ethnic minority groups, and initiated the Program for Protecting China’s Language Resources. As of March 2019, there were 714 radio and television stations in ethnic autonomous areas. The broadcasting stations across the country run 46 television channels and 56 radio programs in ethnic minority languages. The Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region publishes newspapers, books, audios, videos, and electronic publications in Han Chinese, Uygur, Kazakh, Kyrghyz, Mongolian and Xibo languages, and uses various spoken and written languages in radio and television programs. The state provides bilingual education in ethnic minority areas, forming a basic bilingual education system that extends from preschool to senior high school. In 2018, there were 6,521 primary and middle schools catering to ethnic minority students in China, giving courses in both Han Chinese and ethnic minority languages, with 206,000 full-time teachers teaching such courses to 3.09 million students.

  少数民族文化遗产、文物古迹得到有效保护。少数民族传统文化是中华文化的重要组成部分,是中国各族人民的共同精神财富。中国政府制定相关法律,设立专门机构,加大资金投入,推动少数民族文化传承发展。拉萨布达拉宫历史建筑群、丽江古城、元上都遗址、红河哈尼梯田文化景观、土司遗址等被列入联合国教科文组织《世界遗产名录》。中国列入联合国教科文组织非物质文化遗产名录(名册)的项目中有21项与少数民族相关;中国前四批共计1372项国家级非物质文化遗产名录中,与少数民族相关的有492项,占36%;在五批3068名国家级非物质文化遗产项目代表性传承人中,少数民族传承人有862名,约占28%;设立21个国家级文化生态保护实验区,其中有11个位于民族地区;25个省(自治区、直辖市)已建立民族古籍整理与研究机构。截至2018年,抢救、整理的散藏民间的少数民族古籍约百万种(不含馆藏及寺院藏书),包括很多珍贵的孤本和善本。组织实施《中国少数民族古籍总目提要》编纂工程,共收书目约30万种。

  Cultural heritage and relics of ethnic minorities are effectively protected. Traditional ethnic minority cultures are important components of Chinese culture, and the common cultural wealth of the whole nation. The Chinese government has promulgated laws, established specialized government bodies, and increased spending to inherit, pass on, and develop the cultures of ethnic minority groups. The Historic Ensemble of the Potala Palace of Lhasa, Old Town of Lijiang, Site of Xanadu, Cultural Landscape of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces, and Tusi Sites are all included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Of all the cultural items from China included in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List, 21 are related to ethnic minorities. At national level, 492 (36 percent) of the 1,372 cultural items included to date in China’s intangible cultural heritage list are related to ethnic minorities. Of the 3,068 representative trustees of China’s intangible cultural heritage, 862 (28 percent) are from ethnic minority groups. China has set up 21 national-level cultural preservation experimental areas, 11 of which are located in ethnic minority areas. Twenty-five provinces and equivalent administrative units have institutions that catalogue and study ancient classics and recordings of ethnic minorities. By 2018, about one million privately-held ethnic minority ancient classics and recordings (excluding books collected in museums and temples), including many rare editions, some of which only had a single extant copy, had been rescued and catalogued. China has launched the compilation of Collection of Ancient Classics and Recordings of Chinese Ethnic Minorities, including about 300,000 books.

  少数民族宗教信仰自由得到保障。少数民族正常的宗教活动和宗教信仰依法受到保护,正常宗教需求得到满足。以多种语言文字翻译出版发行伊斯兰教、佛教、基督教等宗教典籍。西藏自治区有藏传佛教活动场所1787处,住寺僧尼4.6万多人。颁布《藏传佛教活佛转世管理办法》,活佛转世制度作为藏传佛教所特有的信仰和传承方式,得到国家和西藏自治区各级政府的尊重。西藏自治区现有活佛358名,其中91位新转世活佛按历史定制和宗教仪轨得到批准认定。不断完善藏传佛教僧人学经制度,国家颁布了《藏传佛教学衔授予办法(试行)》,截至2018年,西藏自治区已有117名学经僧人获得了格西“拉让巴”学位,68名僧人获得了中国藏语系高级佛学院“拓然巴”高级学衔。新疆维吾尔自治区有清真寺、教堂、寺院、道观等宗教活动场所2.48万座,其中清真寺有2.44万多座,教职人员2.93万人,学生可在伊斯兰教经学院接受本科教育,《古兰经》《布哈里圣训实录精华》等出版发行达176万余册。实行有组织、有计划的朝觐政策,加强服务保障,确保朝觐活动安全有序。

  Religious freedoms of ethnic minority groups are protected. Normal religious activities and religious beliefs of ethnic minorities are protected by law, and their normal religious needs are satisfied. China has published translations of the religious classics of Islam, Buddhism, Christianity and other religions in multiple languages. Tibet Autonomous Region has 1,787 venues for practicing Tibetan Buddhism, and over 46,000 resident monks and nuns. The state has issued the Measures on the Management of the Reincarnation of Living Buddhas of Tibetan Buddhism. The Living Buddha reincarnation is a succession system unique to Tibetan Buddhism, and is respected by the state and governments at different levels of the autonomous region. Tibet now has 358 Living Buddhas, 91 of whom have been approved and confirmed through historical conventions and traditional religious rituals. The system whereby Tibetan Buddhist monks study sutras has been improved. The state has issued the Measures on the Conferment of Academic Titles in Tibetan Buddhism (Trial). By 2018 a total of 117 monks from Tibet had received senior academic titles in Lhasa and 68 from the High-level Tibetan Buddhism College of China, Beijing. Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region has 24,800 venues for practicing religious activities, including 24,400 mosques, and 29,300 clerical personnel. Students can receive undergraduate education in Xinjiang Islamic Institute. More than 1.76 million copies of the Quran and Selections from Sahih of al-Buhari have been distributed. The hajj is well planned, organized and conducted to ensure a safe and orderly pilgrimage.

  妇女儿童保护力度持续加强。妇女权益保障法、未成年人保护法奠定了保障妇女儿童权益的法律基础。中国政府先后制定实施了三个中国妇女发展纲要和三个中国儿童发展纲要,积极倡导并切实实现男女平等,加强儿童权利保护。不断加大女职工劳动就业、劳动保护、生育保障等权益的保护力度。有力惩处性侵、虐待未成年人、拐卖妇女儿童等犯罪行为,推动落实性违法犯罪人员从业禁止、校园性侵强制报告等制度。颁布实施反家庭暴力法,通过强制报告、公安告诫、人身安全保护令、紧急庇护等制度的实施,保障包括妇女在内的家庭成员的合法权益。维护校园安全,整治校园暴力和学生欺凌行为。强化留守儿童父母或受委托监护人的监护主体责任,严厉打击侵害农村留守儿童的违法犯罪活动。充分运用互联网等先进科技手段解救被拐卖儿童,建立打拐DNA信息库,推出公安部儿童失踪信息紧急发布平台,建立失踪儿童快速救助联动机制。

  The protection of women and children is improving. The Law on the Protection of Women’s Rights and Interests and the Law on the Protection of Minors lay the legal foundations in this area. The Chinese government has enacted three guidelines on women’s development and three on children’s development, advocating and ensuring gender equality and strengthening the protection of children’s rights. It works harder to protect the rights and interests of women employees, such as the right to work and to safety at work, and maternity benefits. It forcefully punishes sexual assaults on and maltreatment of minors, and trafficking of women and children. It promotes mechanisms preventing sexual criminals from engaging in restricted occupations, and compulsory reporting of campus sexual assaults. The state has promulgated the Anti-Domestic Violence Law, which protects the legal rights and interests of woman and other family members through compulsory reporting, admonition from public security organs, personal protection order, emergency protection and other measures. The government makes every effort to ensure school safety, punishing school violence and bullying. It intensifies supervision over the duties of the parents or other entrusted guardians of left-behind children whose parents work in other places and takes strict action on any crimes against this group of children. China makes full use of advanced technologies like the internet to rescue abducted children. It has established a DNA bank for abducted children, set up a missing children information release platform managed by the Ministry of Public Security, and activated a joint urgent rescue mechanism for missing children.

  妇女儿童健康权益保障水平不断提高。新中国成立前,孕产妇死亡率高达1500/10万,婴儿死亡率高达200‰,妇女的平均预期寿命仅有36.7岁。新中国成立后,妇女儿童健康水平不断提高,2015年妇女平均预期寿命达79.43岁;2018年孕产妇死亡率下降到18.3/10万,婴儿死亡率下降到6.1‰。2012年起,实施贫困地区儿童营养改善项目,改善贫困地区儿童营养健康状况,截至2018年,项目覆盖21个省(自治区、直辖市)14个国家集中连片特殊困难地区715个贫困县,共有722万儿童受益。实施妇女宫颈癌和乳腺癌免费检查项目,将宫颈癌和乳腺癌纳入国家大病救治范围,截至2018年,累计开展宫颈癌免费检查近1亿人次,乳腺癌免费检查超过3000万人次。按照每人救助1万元的标准,累计发放中央专项彩票公益金和筹集的社会资金13亿多元,救助贫困患病妇女13.22万名。增加农村和边远地区妇幼卫生经费投入,实施农村孕产妇住院分娩补助项目,累计补助7400余万人。实施“母亲水窖”供水工程和“母亲健康快车”医疗卫生健康项目,着力解决西部干旱地区妇女安全饮水及贫困地区妇女儿童健康服务等问题。

  The protection of women and children’s right to health is improving. Before the founding of the PRC in 1949, the maternal and perinatal mortality rate was over 1,500 per 100,000, the infant mortality rate was 200 per 1,000, and the anticipated life expectancy of women was only 36.7 years. After 1949, the situation improved considerably. The anticipated life expectancy of women in 2015 rose to 79.43 years. In 2018 the maternal and perinatal mortality rate dropped to 18.3 per 100,000, and the infant mortality rate fell to 6.1 per 1,000. Nutritional improvement projects for children in impoverished areas were launched in 2012, benefiting 7.22 million children from 715 impoverished counties in 14 national contiguous impoverished regions of 21 provinces and equivalent administrative units. The government has launched a program of free cervical and breast cancer checkups for women, and brought the two into the scope of national subsidies for serious illnesses. By 2018 China had provided free cervical cancer checkups for 100 million and free breast cancer checkups for 30 million, and subsidized 132,200 impoverished rural women with diseases using over RMB1.3 billion collected through public welfare lotteries and social funds, to the sum of RMB10,000 each person. It has increased the investment for health care of women and children in rural, remote or border areas, and has subsidized more than 74 million rural women for their expenses of hospitalization during childbirth. The government has initiated the “Water Cellar for Mothers” program to provide reliable sources of drinking water for people, especially women, in the western regions of China, and the “Health Express for Mothers” program to provide medical and health services to the women and children in impoverished areas.

  切实保障妇女参与公共事务管理和经济社会发展的权利。保障妇女参政议政权,十三届全国人大代表中有742名女性,占比24.9%,比1954年第一届全国人大女性代表占比提高12.9个百分点;十三届全国政协委员中有440名女性,占比20.4%,比1949年第一届全国政协女性委员占比提高14.3个百分点。20世纪90年代以来,历次党代会报告都明确要求重视培养选拔女干部。1950年全国干部队伍中女干部人数为6.5万人;2018年全国公务员中女干部人数为192.8万人,占比26.8%。

  Women’s rights to participation in the administration of public affairs and social and economic development are protected. Women are guaranteed the right to participate in the administration and deliberation of state affairs. The 13th NPC has 742 female deputies, accounting for 24.9 percent of the total, 12.9 percentage points higher than the figure for the First NPC in 1954. And the 13th CPPCC National Committee has 440 female members, making up 20.4 percent of the total, 14.3 percentage points higher than that for the First CPPCC National Committee in 1949. Since the 1990s, every CPC National Congress has attached importance to training and selecting female officials. The number of female civil servants was 65,000 in 1950; this figure had increased to 1.93 million, or 26.8 percent of all civil servants, by 2018.

  老年人权益保障机制逐步健全。中国发展老龄事业,在全社会弘扬中华民族敬老、养老、助老的美德。截至2018年,中国60周岁及以上老年人口24949万人,占总人口的17.9%。制定并修订老年人权益保障法,建立养老法规政策体系。养老服务逐步从以机构集中照料为主,拓展到以居家为基础、社区为依托、机构为补充、医养相结合的养老服务体系建设和以家庭养老支持、互助养老为新突破点的融合发展。全国各类养老服务机构和设施从1978年的7000个增长到2019年3月的16.81万个,各类养老服务床位合计732万张。2018年,2972.3万老年人享受高龄补贴,74.8万老年人享受护理补贴,521.7万老年人享受养老服务补贴,3.0万老年人享受其他老龄补贴。

  The mechanism for protecting the rights and interests of the elderly is improving. China works to ensure the interests of the elderly, and advocates the virtues of respecting, providing for and assisting the elderly. In 2018, some 249 million Chinese were aged 60 or above, accounting for 17.9 percent of the total population. China formulated and amended the Law on the Protection of the Rights and Interests of the Elderly, forming a legal and policy framework for old-age care.

  Many of China’s elderly were cared for in nursing homes previously. Now, a new system for the elderly is taking shape, where the elderly are provided with home care, taken care of by community and supported by social services, featuring a combination of nursing at home and mutual help. In March 2019, China had 168,100 institutions and facilities with 7.32 million beds to provide old-age services, in contrast with just 7,000 in 1978. In 2018, 29.72 million senior citizens received advanced age subsidies, 748,000 nursing subsidies, 5.2 million old-age service subsidies, and 30,000 other old-age subsidies.

  残疾人社会保障体系不断完善。全面建立困难残疾人生活补贴和重度残疾人护理补贴制度,2018年,受益残疾人超过2100万人次。截至2018年,2561.2万城乡残疾人参加城乡社会养老保险,1024.4万残疾人领取养老金,924.8万残疾人享受城乡最低生活保障;595.2万重度残疾人中有576万人得到政府参保补助,代缴养老保险费比例达到96.8%;另有298.4万非重度残疾人享受全额或部分代缴养老保险费的优惠政策。

  The social security system for persons with disabilities is improving. China has established a subsidy system to provide for the living expenses of disabled persons in need and to pay the nursing costs of persons with severe disabilities. In 2018, this system benefitted over 21 million. A total of 25.61 million persons with disabilities were covered in old-age insurance schemes in both urban and rural areas, with 10.24 million receiving old-age pensions, and 9.25 million people with disabilities received urban or rural minimum living subsidies. And 5.76 million (96.8 percent) out of the 5.95 million people with severe disabilities received insurance subsidies from the government, which paid for their premiums. The government also paid fully or partly for premiums for another 2.98 million people with mild or moderate disabilities.

  残疾人康复服务普惠可及。全面开展残疾预防,不断加强康复服务,努力实现残疾人“人人享有康复服务”的目标。实施《残疾预防和残疾人康复条例》,残疾人康复机构从无到有,专业队伍逐渐壮大,服务能力日益提高。截至2018年,已竣工的省、市、县三级康复设施914个,总建筑面积344.9万平方米;残疾人专业康复服务机构9036个,在岗人员25万人,2750个县(市、区)开展社区康复服务。建立残疾儿童康复救助制度。2018年,残疾人康复服务覆盖率达到79.8%,1074.7万残疾儿童及持证残疾人得到基本康复服务。

  Rehabilitation is universally available to persons with disabilities. China makes concerted efforts in preventing disability, and works hard to improve rehabilitation services, in pursuit of the goal that “everyone in need has access to rehabilitation services”. The government has enacted the Regulations on the Disability Prevention and Rehabilitation of Persons with Disabilities, built up rehabilitation centers and fostered professionals capable of delivering consistent quality services. In 2018, there were 914 rehabilitation facilities at the provincial, city and county levels, and 9,036 rehabilitation service centers for persons with disabilities employed a team of 250,000 workers, and community rehabilitation services were provided in 2,750 counties (cities or districts). An assistance mechanism for providing rehabilitation services to children with disabilities has been established. In 2018, 79.8 percent of persons with disabilities were covered by rehabilitation services. Some 10.75 million disabled children and persons with certified disabilities received basic rehabilitation services.

  促进残疾人工作权利实现。建立专门的残疾人就业服务机构,截至2018年,共有残疾人就业服务机构2787家,工作人员1.5万人。实施残疾人职业技能提升计划,建立了500家国家级残疾人职业培训基地,350家省级残疾人职业培训基地,2018年城乡新增残疾人实名制培训49.4万人。近年来,残疾人就业总体规模与结构趋于稳定,新增残疾人就业人数每年保持在30万人以上。2018年,城乡持证残疾人新增就业36.7万人,其中,城镇新增就业11.8万人,农村新增就业24.9万人。截至2018年,城乡持证残疾人就业人数达到948.4万人。

  The right to employment of persons with disabilities is guaranteed. China has established offices to serve persons with disabilities seeking employment. In 2018, there were 2,787 such offices with a staff of 15,000. The government has launched a program on employment skills training for persons with disabilities, setting up 500 national-level and 350 provincial-level vocational training bases. In 2018, another 494,000 persons with disabilities took part in training sessions. In recent years the number and the profile of disabled persons in employment have remained stable, with over 300,000 entering the workforce each year. In 2018, 367,000 persons with certified disabilities found jobs, of whom 118,000 were from urban areas and 249,000 from rural areas. That year, 9.48 million persons with certified disabilities were employed in urban and rural areas.

  大力支持无障碍环境建设与辅助器具服务。实施《无障碍环境建设条例》,开展无障碍建设的市、县达到1702个,村(社区)综合服务设施中已有75%的出入口、40%的服务柜台、30%的厕所进行了无障碍建设和改造。2016年至2018年,共有298.6万户残疾人家庭得到无障碍改造。推进信息无障碍建设,截至2018年,500多家政府单位完成了信息无障碍公共服务平台建设,3万多个政务和公共服务网站实现了无障碍服务。各地相继制定辅助器具补贴办法,对购买辅助器具和提供适配服务给予补贴。2018年,有319.1万残疾人获得盲杖、助视器、假肢等各类辅具适配服务。不断放宽残疾人申领驾驶证条件,已有27.9万肢体、听力等残障人员申领驾驶证,残疾人个人行动和社会参与能力得到提升。

  China gives strong support to creating an accessible environment and providing assistive appliances. The Chinese government enacted the Regulations on the Building of an Accessible Environment in 2012. To this end, 1,702 cities and counties are making efforts to improve accessibility and remove barriers, and among comprehensive service facilities in villages or communities across the country, 75 percent of entrances and exits, 40 percent of service counters, and 30 percent of restrooms have been equipped or upgraded for accessibility. Between 2016 and 2018, the government helped almost 3 million families with disabled members adapt their homes.

  The government is also promoting information accessibility. By 2018, over 500 government departments had built accessible public service platforms, and more than 30,000 websites on government affairs and public services had removed barriers for persons with disabilities.

  Local governments have formulated subsidy measures and subsidized those who purchase or supply assistive appliances and adaption services. In 2018, 3.19 million persons with disabilities benefited from adaption services for assistive devices such as white canes, visual aids and artificial limbs.

  The government has relaxed the restrictions preventing persons with disabilities from applying for a driving license, and 279,000 people with physical or hearing disabilities have gained driving licenses, which grants them further mobility and improves their ability to participate in social life.

  六、不断加强人权法治保障

  VI. Strengthening the Rule of Law for Human Rights

  新中国创立了社会主义法治,以法治保障人权。70年来,中国构建起较为完备的人权法律保障体系,坚持依法治国、依法执政、依法行政共同推进,坚持法治国家、法治政府、法治社会一体建设,实现科学立法、严格执法、公正司法、全民守法,不断促进社会公平正义。

  After the founding of the PRC, socialist rule of law was established in China to protect human rights by law. Over the past 70 years, China has established a relatively complete legal system to protect human rights. It upholds law-based governance, law-based exercise of power, and law-based government administration, and adopts a holistic approach to promote the rule of law across the nation, in government, and throughout society. To promote social fairness and justice, it has endeavored to ensure that a well-conceived approach is taken to legislation, that the law is strictly enforced, that justice is impartially administered, and that the law is observed by everyone.

  建设有限政府、责任政府、服务政府。依法确定行政权力界限,确立法无授权不可为的原则,实施权力清单、责任清单制度,禁止法外设权、违法用权。持续深化“放管服”改革,加快转变政府职能,努力降低群众和企业与政府打交道的成本。建立完善严格的行政执法程序,确立行政裁量权基准制度,统一执法标准,压缩自由裁量空间,维护行政相对人的合法权益。深化执法公开,拓展公开范围,整合公开载体,强化网上政务公开,方便群众获取信息。25个省(自治区、直辖市)建立省级执法公开平台,实现了执法办案进度和结果的信息查询服务;22个省(自治区、直辖市)实现了行政处罚决定文书网上公开;17个省(自治区、直辖市)实现了行政复议决定文书网上公开。强化执法监督,建立完善以执法考评为主要内容的绩效考核体系,深化执法信息化建设,实现案件流程信息化管理和同步记录,加强对执法活动的实时监督。

  Building a service-oriented government with limited powers and clear responsibilities. The state delimits administrative power in accordance with the law. China has established a principle under which administrative bodies should not take any action that is not mandated by law. It has introduced a list of well-defined government powers and a list of responsibilities, and prohibited any power not provided for by law, or any illegal use of power. In its effort to improve governance, China has accelerated the transformation of government functions, streamlining administration and delegating power to the lower levels, exercising better supervision over the market, and providing efficient services to business. The people and businesses are thus provided with better services. China has established strict procedures for administrative law enforcement and a system of benchmarks for administrative discretion, with unified standards in law enforcement and rigorous discretionary rules, to ensure the legitimate rights and interests of the people and businesses. To make law enforcement more transparent, China has expanded the scope and channels of disclosure, and opened online portals for the public to obtain information. Twenty-five provinces and equivalent administrative units have online platforms providing information on law enforcement and on the progress and results of cases in process. Twenty-two provinces and equivalent administrative units disclose written judgments online, and 17 provinces and equivalent administrative units disclose administrative review decisions online. To strengthen the supervision of law enforcement, China has established a performance appraisal system with a focus on law enforcement, promoted IT application in law enforcement and the management and synchronized recording of case-handling procedures, and strengthened real-time supervision over law enforcement activities.

  确保审判权检察权依法独立公正行使。发布五个“人民法院五年改革纲要”和“人民检察院改革规划”。全面实施立案登记制,有诉必理,保障当事人诉权。实行以法官检察官员额制为核心的司法人员分类管理制度改革,推进司法职业保障制度改革,司法人员正规化、专业化、职业化水平进一步提升。全面落实司法责任制,真正做到“谁办案、谁负责”。贯彻宽严相济刑事政策,进一步完善刑事诉讼程序,推动认罪认罚从宽制度改革,完善刑事案件速裁程序运行机制,深化案件繁简分流,构建中国特色立体化、多层次刑事诉讼体系。在有条件的地方实行省级以下地方法院、检察院人财物统一管理,探索设立跨行政区划的人民法院和人民检察院,最高人民法院设立六个巡回法庭,设立知识产权法院、互联网法院、金融法院等。加强对公共利益的司法保护,建立检察机关提起公益诉讼制度,截至2019年3月,全国检察机关共办理公益诉讼案件157095件。

  Ensuring independent and impartial exercise of judicial and procuratorial powers. China has issued five outlines for five-year reform of the people’s courts and five plans on reform of the people’s procuratorates. To protect citizen’s right of action, it has implemented a case docketing and registration system across the board, which ensures that every case application receives a response. China has reformed the management of judicial personnel, adopted a quota system for judges and procurators, and initiated job security reform for judicial personnel, enabling them to be more regularized and professional. It has fully implemented a judicial responsibility system to ensure that those who have handled a case assume full responsibility for it. The judiciary has combined punishment and clemency in handling criminal cases, further improved criminal proceedings, and introduced reforms on showing clemency to suspects and defendants who cooperate fully. It has improved the fast-track sentencing procedure for criminal cases, further separated the handling of simple and complex cases, and formed a multi-layer criminal litigation system with Chinese characteristics. Where conditions permit, local courts and procuratorates under the provincial level have carried out unified management of personnel, funds and property. China is exploring setting up people’s courts and people’s procuratorates across administrative boundaries. The Supreme People’s Court now has six circuit courts, and there are also courts that handle intellectual property and financial cases, and online courts. The state has strengthened the protection of public interest, and public interest lawsuits are filed by procuratorial organs. By March 2019, 157,095 cases of public interest had been handled by procuratorial organs.

  深化司法公开。全面推进阳光司法,不断加强审判流程、庭审活动、裁判文书、执行信息司法公开平台和人民检察院案件信息公开平台建设。截至2019年2月,中国审判流程信息公开网公开案件信息3.7亿项,中国庭审公开网直播庭审259万件,中国裁判文书网公开文书6382万份,访问量226亿次。人民检察院案件信息公开网自2014年10月1日开通以来,公开案件程序性信息928万余件,发布重要案件信息58万余条,公开法律文书386万余份,接受辩护与代理网上预约30万余人次。加强对司法活动的监督,深化刑事诉讼监督,加强民事行政诉讼监督,不断完善人民陪审员和人民监督员制度。

  Improving judicial openness. To increase judicial transparency, China has improved the platforms for releasing information on judicial process, trials, written judgments, and the execution of judgments, and the platform on disclosing information on cases handled by people’s procuratorates. As of February 2019, China Judicial Process Information Online had disclosed information on 370 million cases, the National Court Hearing Online had broadcast 2.59 million court trials, and China Judgements Online had disclosed 63.82 million copies of judgments, attracting a total of 2.26 billion visits. Since its launch on October 1, 2014, the online information disclosure service of the procuratorates has disclosed information on the proceedings of 9.28 million cases and 580,000 items of information on major cases, put online 3.86 million legal documents, and booked 300,000 defense and litigation applications online. China has strengthened supervision over judicial activities, criminal proceedings, and civil administrative proceedings, and improved the system of people’s jurors and supervisors.

  保障当事人获得公正审判的权利。推进以审判为中心的刑事诉讼制度改革,严格贯彻罪刑法定、证据裁判、非法证据排除等法律原则,完善出庭作证机制,强化庭审功能。充分保障犯罪嫌疑人和被告人的辩护权,犯罪嫌疑人自被侦查机关第一次讯问或者被采取强制措施之日起,有权委托辩护人,被告人有权随时委托辩护人;开展法律援助值班律师和刑事案件律师辩护全覆盖试点工作,实现法院、看守所法律援助工作站全覆盖,努力保障所有刑事案件被告人在审判阶段都能获得律师辩护和帮助;保障辩护律师会见、阅卷、调查取证、质证和辩论辩护等各项诉讼权利;完善保障律师依法履职机制,建立健全维护律师执业权利快速联动处置机制;开通律师服务平台,为律师办案提供便利。坚持疑罪从无,防范和纠正冤假错案。2013年至2019年3月,各级人民法院依法对5876名被告人宣告无罪,确保无罪的人不受刑事追究;再审改判刑事案件8568件,其中依法纠正呼格吉勒图案、聂树斌案、“五周案”等重大冤错案件49件,并依法予以国家赔偿。严格控制并慎用死刑,大幅减少适用死刑的罪名。2007年,最高人民法院收回死刑复核权。

  Guaranteeing the right to fair trial for all parties. China has promoted the reform of the criminal litigation system with a focus on adjudication, strictly enforced the principles of “no penalty without a law”, evidence-based verdict, and exclusionary rule, improved the mechanism for witnesses to appear in court, and strengthened the role of court trials. China has fully guaranteed the right to defense of criminal suspects and defendants. A criminal suspect has the right to entrust a defender from the date when organs of investigation conduct the first interrogation or a compulsory measure is taken against the suspect. A defendant has the right to authorize a defender at any time. Pilot work has been launched to ensure duty counsels offer legal aid for all cases and legal defense is provided in all criminal cases, and legal aid stations can be found at all courts and detention houses, to ensure that defendants in all criminal cases can obtain legal defense and support in trial. The state protects defense lawyers’ rights to meet their clients, to read case files, to investigate and obtain evidence, to conduct cross-examination, and to debate and defend, and other litigious rights. It has improved the mechanism for lawyers to perform their duties by law, formed a joint response system to ensure lawyers’ right of practice, and established a platform to provide appropriate services to them. China implements the principle of presumption of innocence to prevent and correct miscarriages of justice. From 2013 to March 2019, people’s courts at all levels acquitted 5,876 defendants, ensuring that no one should be prosecuted without criminal evidence. Wrongful verdicts on 8,568 criminal cases were overturned, including 49 major cases concerning Hugjiltu for rape and murder, Nie Shubin for rape and murder, and Zhou Jikun, Zhou Jiahua, Zhou Zaichun, Zhou Zhengguo and Zhou Zaihua for murder. The wrongly-convicted all received state compensation in accordance with the law. China has strictly controlled the death penalty, reducing the number of crimes for capital punishment by a significant margin. In 2007, the Supreme People’s Court took back the right to review all capital sentences.

  保障犯罪嫌疑人、被告人、服刑人员、戒毒人员及刑满释放人员的合法权利。规范强制措施,减少羁押性强制措施的适用,实行看守所在押人员入所权利义务告知制度,建立在押人员投诉调查处理机制。深化狱务公开,完善对监所管理人员执法监督,保障服刑人员合法权利不受侵犯。实行人文关怀,开展离监探亲。全面推进社区矫正制度,截至2019年5月,已累计接收社区矫正对象445万人,累计解除矫正375万人,在册社区矫正对象70多万人,社区矫正对象在矫正期间再犯罪率一直处于0.2%的较低水平。新中国成立至1975年,对战争罪犯、反革命罪犯和部分普通刑事罪犯进行过七次特赦。根据现行宪法,2015年和2019年,两次对部分服刑罪犯予以特赦。出台禁毒法、戒毒条例等,依法保障戒毒人员合法权益,开展执法监督。健全完善刑满释放人员救助管理制度,落实社会救助和就业安置措施,促进刑满释放人员顺利融入社会。

  Guaranteeing the legitimate rights and interests of criminal suspects, defendants, prisoners, patients abstained from drugs and people released after serving their sentence. China has regulated compulsory measures and reduced the application of compulsory custodial measures. When the detainees enter a detention house, they are informed of their rights and obligations, and their complaints are handled in accordance with the procedure. Prison affairs are open to the public. China has improved supervision over the law enforcement in prisons and detention houses, to ensure that prisoners’ legitimate rights are not infringed. Some prisoners are allowed to leave prisons and visit their relatives. The system of community service has been extensively implemented. By the end of May 2019, a total of 4.45 million persons throughout the country had received community service orders. Of these, 3.75 million had completed their service, and 700,000 were still subject to their service orders. The recidivism rate in the case of those assigned to community service is low, only 0.2 percent. Between 1949 and 1975, amnesties were granted on seven occasions to war criminals, counterrevolutionary criminals and some prisoners facing criminal charges. In accordance with the Constitution, amnesty was granted to some prisoners in 2015 and 2019. The state has promulgated the Narcotics Control Law and the Regulations on Drug Rehabilitation, ensured the legitimate rights and interests of persons on rehabilitation, and carried out law enforcement supervision. China has improved the assistance and management system for people released after completing their prison sentence, ensures their access to social assistance, and provides assistance to them in employment so that they can smoothly return to normal life.

  建立健全权利救济和救助制度。畅通国家赔偿请求渠道,扩大赔偿范围,明确举证责任,增加精神损害赔偿,提高赔偿标准,保障赔偿金及时支付,进一步完善行政赔偿、刑事赔偿和非刑事司法赔偿制度。国家刑事赔偿标准随经济社会发展不断提高,侵犯公民人身自由权每日赔偿金额从1995年的17.16元人民币,上升到2019年的315.94元人民币。2013年至2019年3月,各级人民法院审结国家赔偿案件61978件。健全完善国家司法救助制度,设立司法救助委员会,积极推动司法救助与社会救助、法律援助的衔接,帮助无法获得有效赔偿的受害人摆脱生活困境。2015年至2018年,对生活困难当事人发放司法救助款37.5亿元。

  Improving the system of right remedy and assistance. The channels for applying for state compensation have been expanded, with more types of cases eligible for compensation and the burden of proof made clear. The state has increased compensation for infliction of mental distress, raised standards of compensation, and guaranteed that compensation is paid in a timely manner. The systems of administrative compensation, criminal compensation and non-criminal judicial compensation have been further improved. Criminal compensation has increased over the years along with economic and social development of the country. The daily compensation for violation of citizens’ personal liberty has risen from RMB17.16 in 1995 to RMB315.94 in 2019. From 2013 to March 2019, the people’s courts at all levels concluded 61,978 cases involving state compensation. China has improved the state judicial assistance system. It has established a judicial assistance committee to actively dovetail judicial assistance with social assistance and legal aid, and help victims in difficulty who have not been able to obtain effective compensation. From 2015 to 2018, RMB3.75 billion of judicial assistance was granted to victims in difficulty.

  公共法律服务更加优质便捷。建立健全法律援助制度,2013年至2018年,全国法律援助机构共组织办理法律援助案件778.8万余件,受援人847.5万余人次,提供法律咨询4526.8万余人次。全面推进律师事业,截至2018年,律师队伍发展到42.3万多人,律师事务所发展到3万多家。完善公共法律服务体系,建设公共法律服务实体平台、“12348”法律服务热线和法律服务网络三大平台,实现申请快捷化、审查简便化,更加便民利民。截至2018年,全国建成2917个县(市、区)公共法律服务中心、3.9万多个乡镇(街道)公共法律服务工作站,为65万个村(居)配备法律顾问,各省(自治区、直辖市)均已建成“12348”法律服务热线平台。推进司法鉴定管理体制改革,提高司法鉴定质量和公信力,截至2018年,经司法行政机关审核登记的司法鉴定机构有3834家,司法鉴定人45000名。

  Providing quality and more convenient public legal services. A sound legal aid system has been established. From 2013 to 2018, legal aid institutions handled some 7.79 million legal aid cases, helping 8.48 million people and providing legal consultancy services to 45.27 million people. The state encourages the development of the profession of lawyers. As of 2018, there were 423,000 lawyers and more than 30,000 law firms across the country. China has improved public legal services, and opened a physical platform for providing public legal services, the “12348” free hotline for legal advice, and online legal services. It is convenient to make an application for legal services, and the review process has been streamlined for public benefit. By the end of 2018, there were 2,917 public legal service centers in counties, cities and districts, and more than 39,000 service stations in towns, townships and sub-districts. About 650,000 villages and communities had legal counselors, and all provinces and equivalent administrative units had opened the “12348” legal service hotline. China has reformed the management of forensic assessment to enhance assessment quality and credibility. By 2018, there were 3,834 forensic assessment institutions approved by and registered with judicial administrative organs, with more than 45,000 forensic appraisers.

  提高全社会人权法治意识。新中国成立以后,通过广泛宣传宪法、婚姻法,男女平等、婚姻自由等观念逐步树立。从1986年起,在全国范围内连续实施7个五年普法规划,开展宪法和法治宣传教育。把法治教育纳入国民教育体系,在中小学教育中加入人权内容。在高校开设人权专业及相关课程,培养人权方向专业人才。面向各级领导干部、公检法司部门工作人员、媒体从业人员等开展专项人权培训。设立8家国家人权教育与培训基地。出版和发行《人权》《人权研究》《中国人权评论》等专业书刊。中国人权研究会连续出版《中国人权事业发展报告》蓝皮书,积极推动人权学术研究、教育和知识普及。

  Enhancing public awareness of legal protection of human rights. After the PRC was founded, the government made an intensive effort to enhance public awareness and understanding of the Constitution, the Marriage Law, and ideas such as gender equality and freedom of marriage were gradually accepted by the public. Since 1986, China has implemented seven nationwide five-year plans on enhancing public awareness of the Constitution and the rule of law. China has included education on the rule of law into the national education system and teaching of human rights into primary and middle school education. Human rights majors and other related courses are offered in universities to cultivate human rights professionals. Special human rights training programs are conducted for officials at all levels, staff of organs of public security, procuratorates and courts, and judicial organs, and those who work in the media. China has eight national human rights education and training bases. Professional periodicals including Human Rights, Human Rights Studies, and China Human Rights Review are published in China. The China Society for Human Rights Studies has consecutively published blue papers titled Development of Human Rights in China, to advance research and education on human rights and promote understanding of the subject.

  强力反腐维护人民利益。1949年11月,中共中央决定成立中央及各级党的纪律检查委员会;1955年,中国共产党的全国代表会议选举产生中央监察委员会;1978年12月,中国共产党十一届三中全会选举产生新的中央纪律检查委员会。中共十八大以来,加快形成完善的党内法规体系,建立了以党章为本,若干配套党内法规为支撑的党内法规制度体系。2018年3月,中华人民共和国国家监察委员会依法组建,各级纪委监委合署办公,对所有行使公权力的公职人员实行监督全覆盖。从2012年12月至2019年6月,中央纪委立案审查中管干部389人,涉嫌犯罪移送司法机关155人。坚决整治群众身边腐败和作风问题,深入推进扶贫领域腐败和作风问题专项治理,开展民生领域专项整治,深挖涉黑腐败和黑恶势力“保护伞”,坚决清除包庇、纵容黑恶势力的腐败分子。

  Striking against corruption to safeguard people’s interests. In November 1949, the CPC Central Committee decided to establish discipline inspection committees at all levels. In 1955, the National Conference of the CPC elected a Central Supervision Commission. In December 1978, the Third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee elected a new Central Commission for Discipline Inspection. Since the 18th CPC National Congress, a sound system of intra-Party regulations has been formed based on the Party Constitution and supported by intra-Party regulations. In March 2018, the Supervision Commission of the People’s Republic of China was established by law. Discipline inspection commissions of the Party and supervision commissions of the government at all levels jointly carry out full supervision over all public functionaries who exercise public power. From December 2012 to June 2019, the CPC Central Commission for Discipline Inspection investigated 389 officials registered at and supervised by the CPC Central Committee, and transferred 155 cases of suspected criminal activity to the judiciary. China has resolutely fought corruption that directly affects ordinary people’s lives, and carried out special campaigns to address corruption and misconduct in poverty alleviation and problems undermining the public interest. It has carried out thorough investigations of criminal syndicate-related corruption and protection rackets, getting rid of corrupt officials who sheltered or connived with criminal syndicates.

  七、全面参与全球人权治理

  VII. Full Participation in Global Governance of Human Rights

  中国在大力推进自身人权事业发展的同时,始终坚持平等互信、包容互鉴、合作共赢、共同发展的理念,积极参与联合国人权事务,认真履行国际人权义务,广泛开展国际人权合作,积极为全球人权治理提供中国智慧、中国方案,以实际行动推进全球人权治理朝着更加公正合理包容的方向发展。

  While promoting the development of its own human rights, China upholds the principles of equality and mutual trust, inclusiveness and mutual learning, cooperation and mutual benefits, and common development. It has been active in UN human rights undertakings, fulfills its international human rights obligations, conducts extensive international cooperation on human rights, actively offers Chinese wisdom and solutions for global governance of human rights, and advances through concrete actions the global governance of human rights in a fairer, more rational and inclusive direction.

  积极参与国际人权事业。中国在1971年恢复联合国合法席位后,派团参与联合国大会和联合国经社理事会的历届会议,并积极参加有关人权议题的审议。自1979年起,中国连续3年作为观察员出席联合国人权委员会会议。1981年,中国在联合国经社理事会组织会议上当选为人权委员会成员国。自1982年起,中国正式担任人权委员会成员国并一直连选连任。2006年人权理事会成立以来,中国已四度当选理事会成员。中国推荐的多名专家担任联合国经社文权利委员会、禁止酷刑委员会、消除种族歧视委员会、消除对妇女歧视委员会、残疾人权利委员会等多个多边人权机构或专门委员会的委员。

  Engaging in international human rights undertakings. Since resuming its legitimate seat in the UN in 1971, China has sent delegations to every UN General Assembly and UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) conference, and actively joined in the reviews of issues concerning human rights. From 1979 to 1981 China attended the annual meetings of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) as an observer state. In 1981 China was elected a UNCHR member state at the ECOSOC’s Management Segment. In 1982, China became an official member state of the UNCHR and has maintained this position ever since. Since the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) was established in 2006, China has been elected as a member state four times. A number of experts recommended by China have served on multilateral human rights organizations or special commissions such as the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the United Nations Committee against Torture, the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, and the United Nations Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

  中国同联合国人权事务高级专员及其办公室保持建设性接触,先后8次接待人权高专访华,多次邀请高专办官员来华交流访问。近年来,中国与人权高专办两次签署技术合作《谅解备忘录》,内容涵盖司法改革、警察与人权、人权教育、执行人权条约等领域,并与人权高专办多次共同举办国际人权会议。自1994年至今,中国先后邀请宗教信仰自由特别报告员、任意拘留问题工作组、教育权特别报告员、酷刑问题特别报告员、粮食权特别报告员、消除对妇女歧视问题工作组、外债对人权影响问题独立专家、极端贫困与人权问题特别报告员等8个特别机制10次访华。中国认真对待人权理事会特别机制来函,在认真调查的基础上及时予以答复。

  China maintains constructive contacts with the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Office (OHCHR), receiving eight visits by high commissioners to China, and inviting many of the OHCHR officials to visit China. In recent years, China has signed two memorandums of understanding on technological cooperation concerning judicial reform, police and human rights, human rights education, and implementation of human rights treaties, and held together with the OHCHR many international conferences on human rights. Since 1994, China has invited ten visits by eight UN representatives and groups: the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief, the United Nations Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Education, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, the United Nations Working Group on the issue of discrimination against women in law and in practice, the United Nations Independent Expert on the effects of foreign debt and other related international financial obligations of states on the full enjoyment of all human rights, particularly economic, social and cultural rights, and the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Extreme Poverty and Human Rights. China handles letters from the Special Procedures of the UNHRC with due attention, carrying out any necessary investigations and giving timely replies.

  切实遵守国际人权义务。中国先后批准或加入了26项国际人权文书,其中包括《经济、社会及文化权利国际公约》《消除对妇女一切形式歧视公约》《消除一切形式种族歧视国际公约》等6项联合国核心人权条约。中国严格遵守条约规定,认真履行条约义务,注重将国内的立法、修法和政策制定等与条约规定相衔接,及时提交履约报告,全面反映中国在履约过程中取得的成就及遇到的问题。中国认真参加各条约机构对中国履约情况的审议,截至2019年3月,中国已向各条约机构提交履约报告27次,总计43期,接受审议26次。中国注重与相关人权条约机构开展建设性对话,结合国情积极采纳建议。自2009年以来,中国三次接受联合国人权理事会普遍定期审议并顺利通过核可,中国对各国所提建议均给予认真、负责任的反馈。绝大多数国家肯定中国人权发展成就和中国对世界人权事业所作的贡献。

  Fulfilling obligations in the international instruments on human rights. China has signed 26 international human rights instruments, including six major ones such as the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, and the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. China abides by the provisions of these international conventions, fulfills all the obligations they prescribe, ensures that its policy formulation, legislation, and any amendments are consistent with these conventions, and submits periodic reports to give feedback on the progress made and any difficulties and problems encountered in implementing these international conventions. China attends all reviews from the treaty bodies on its implementation work. By March 2019, China had submitted 43 implementation reports on 27 occasions to these treaty bodies and received 26 reviews. China has conducted constructive dialogue with the relevant treaty bodies and adopted their suggestions in accordance with the actual conditions in China. China has also received three UNHRC Universal Periodic Review cycles since 2009, and the reports were adopted. China gives due attention and responsible feedback to all suggestions from other countries. Most countries have affirmed China’s achievements in this regard and its contribution to international human rights.

  着力推动国际人权规则和机制发展。中国参加了《禁止酷刑和其他残忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或处罚公约》《儿童权利公约》《残疾人权利公约》《保护所有移徙工人及其家庭成员权利国际公约》,以及《经济、社会及文化权利国际公约》任择议定书等重要人权文件的制定工作组会议,为这些规则的起草、修改和完善作出重要贡献。中国作为主要推动者之一,参与了《发展权利宣言》的起草工作,积极推动联合国人权委员会和人权理事会就实现发展权问题进行全球磋商,致力于推动构建发展权实施机制。中国积极参与劳工保护、人道主义等领域国际规则制定。中国是《联合国气候变化框架公约》首批缔约方之一,全程参与并有效推动气候变化多边进程,为推动达成《巴黎协定》作出积极贡献。

  Promoting international rules and mechanisms for protecting human rights. China has attended the meetings of the drafting groups of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families, and the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, along with other important documents on human rights protection, making a significant contribution to drafting, revising and improving these rules. As one of the major promoters, China participated in drafting the Declaration on the Right to Development, assisting the UNCHR and the UNHRC to organize global discussions on fulfilling the right to development, and is committed to building mechanisms for actualizing the right to development. China actively participates in the formulation of international rules on labor protection and humanitarianism. China was one of the first signatories to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It actively participated in and effectively promoted the whole multilateral process of climate change issues, and made a positive contribution to the adoption of the Paris Agreement.

  中国积极推动联合国人权机构改革,在设立联合国人权理事会,使国际人权机制变得更加公正客观透明等方面发挥了重要作用。中国联合发展中国家一道,推动人权理事会以公正客观、非选择性、普遍性等方式审议人权问题。中国支持联合国人权理事会设立安全饮用水、文化权、残疾人权利等专题性特别机制;倡导召开关于粮食安全、国际金融机制等的特别会议,积极推动完善国际人权机制。中国支持对人权条约机构进行必要改革,促进条约机构与缔约国在相互尊重的基础上开展对话与合作。

  China promotes the reform of UN human rights bodies, and played an important role in establishing the UNHRC and making the international human rights mechanism fairer, more objective and transparent. Together with other developing countries, it assists the UNHRC to review human rights issues in a fair, objective, nonselective and general manner. China supports the UNHRC in establishing specialized mechanisms for securing safe drinking water, cultural rights, and the rights of persons with disabilities, in calling for special conferences on food security and the global financial crisis, and in improving the international mechanisms for protecting human rights. China supports the necessary reform of the human rights treaty bodies, promoting dialogue and cooperation between the treaty bodies and signatory states on the basis of mutual respect.

  倡导开展国际人权交流合作。中国高度重视开展人权领域对外交流交往与合作,致力于在相互尊重、开放包容、交流互鉴基础上开展建设性人权对话和人权磋商。自20世纪90年代起,中国陆续与20多个国家建立人权对话或磋商机制,同美国、欧盟、英国、德国、瑞士、荷兰、澳大利亚、新西兰等西方国家或国际组织进行人权对话,同俄罗斯、埃及、南非、巴西、马来西亚、巴基斯坦、白俄罗斯、古巴、非盟等开展人权磋商。自1996年以来,与澳大利亚、瑞士长期开展人权技术合作。中国人权研究会等人权领域非政府组织组团赴亚洲、北美、南美、欧洲、大洋洲、非洲的数十个国家交流访问,并邀请多国人权领域的政府官员和专家学者访华,增进了理解与互信。近年来,中国多次举办国际人权研讨会,“亚欧非正式人权研讨会”“北京人权论坛”“纪念《发展权利宣言》通过30周年国际研讨会”“南南人权论坛”“中欧人权研讨会”“国际人权文博会”“中美司法与人权研讨会”“中德人权研讨会”,拓展了国际人权交流合作的朋友圈,增进了在人权问题上与各国的相互了解。

  Advocating and conducting international exchanges and cooperation concerning human rights. China prioritizes communication, exchanges, and cooperation with other countries in the field of human rights, and is committed to conducting constructive dialogue and consultations on human rights on the basis of mutual respect, openness, inclusiveness, communication and mutual learning. Since the 1990s, China has established dialogue and consultation mechanisms for human rights protection with more than 20 other countries. China has organized dialogues on human rights with international organizations and Western countries, including the US, the EU, the UK, Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Australia, and New Zealand, and held consultations on human rights with Russia, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Malaysia, Pakistan, Belarus, Cuba, and the African Union. Since 1996, China has conducted technical cooperation on human rights with Australia and Switzerland. The China Society for Human Rights Studies (CSHRS) and other human rights NGOs in China have organized teams to visit dozens of countries in Asia, North America, South America, Europe, Oceania and Africa, and invited government officials, experts and academics on human rights from various countries to visit China, which has increased mutual understanding and trust. In recent years, China has hosted several international seminars on human rights, including the Informal Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) Seminar on Human Rights, the Beijing Forum on Human Rights, the International Seminar on the 30th Anniversary of the Adoption of the UN Declaration on the Right to Development, the South-South Human Rights Forum, the China-Europe Seminar on Human Rights, the International Seminar on Human Rights and Museology, the Sino-American Dialogue on the Rule of Law and Human Rights, and the China-Germany Seminar on Human Rights, which increased China’s circle of friends in exchange and cooperation on human rights, and enlarged mutual understanding with other countries in this regard.

  积极引导国际人权治理变革。中国不仅注重自身人权事业的提升,也始终重视引导全球人权治理体系变革。1954年,中国与印度、缅甸提出互相尊重主权和领土完整、互不侵犯、互不干涉内政、平等互利、和平共处五项原则,体现了对国家独立的认可,尊重了相关国家和人民的自主权。1955年,在中国推动下,万隆会议通过的《亚非会议最后公报》将“尊重基本人权”写入和平共处十项原则的第一条。万隆会议通过的十项原则是对和平共处五项原则的引申和发展。20世纪60年代兴起的不结盟运动把五项原则作为指导原则。1970年和1974年联合国大会通过的有关宣言接受了和平共处五项原则。60多年来,和平共处五项原则逐渐走出亚洲走向世界,为推动建立更加公正合理的国际政治经济秩序、建立新型国际关系作出了历史性贡献,也为国际人权治理提供了重要遵循。

  Actively leading the reform of international human rights governance. In addition to making progress in its own human rights protection, China also attaches importance to leading the reform of the international human rights governance system. In 1954, together with India and Burma, China proposed the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence: mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty, non-aggression, non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, equality and cooperation for mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence, which embodies the acknowledgement and appreciation of national independence, and respect for the decision-making power of independent countries and their peoples. In 1955, encouraged by China, the final Communiqué of the Bandung Conference incorporated “respect for fundamental human rights” as the first point into the 10-point declaration on promotion of world peace and cooperation. The 10-point declaration passed at the Bandung Conference is a derivation and development of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. The Non-Aligned Movement that rose in the 1960s set the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence as its guideline. The declarations adopted at the 1970 and 1974 UN general assemblies accepted the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence. Over the six decades that have since passed, the influence of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence has expanded from Asia to the whole world. It has made a historic contribution to building a fairer and more reasonable international political and economic order and establishing a new type of international relations, and serves as a guide for the international governance of human rights.

  多年来,中国不断总结提炼自身人权保障实践经验,向国际人权事业贡献中国智慧和方案。1993年,中国推动亚洲国家通过《曼谷宣言》。中国作为第二届世界人权大会的副主席国,参加《维也纳宣言和行动纲领》的起草工作。中国提出的“发展对享有所有人权的贡献”的决议在联合国人权理事会通过,首次将“发展促进人权”引入国际人权体系。近年来,中国提出的推动共同构建人类命运共同体理念在国际社会引起热烈反响,多次被写入联合国人权理事会、联合国安理会等机构的决议,为推动国际人权治理向着更加公正合理包容的方向发展发挥了重要作用。

  Over the years, China has kept summing up its own experience in human rights protection, and provided the international community with Chinese wisdom and solutions. In 1993, China pushed for the adoption of the Bangkok Declaration among Asian countries. Holding the vice presidency of the Second World Conference on Human Rights, China participated in drafting the Vienna Declaration and Program of Action. The UNHRC passed the resolution “The Contribution of Development to the Enjoyment of All Human Rights” submitted by China, which introduced the concept of “promoting human rights through development” into international human rights for the first time. The idea of building a global community of shared future proposed by China has elicited a positive international response. The concept has been written into many resolutions of the UNHRC, the United Nations Security Council, and some other UN organizations. It plays an important role in advancing the international governance of human rights in a fairer, more reasonable and inclusive direction.

  八、推动世界人权事业发展

  VIII. Advancing the International Cause of Human Rights

  新中国成立后,中国在不断推进自身人权事业的同时,积极支持广大发展中国家摆脱殖民统治、实现民族独立、消除种族隔离的正义事业,努力提升发展中国家的发展能力、提供发展援助、进行人道主义援助,在维护世界和平与发展、推动国际人权事业发展进步等方面作出了重要贡献。

  Since the founding of the PRC, in addition to advancing the human rights of its people, China has earnestly supported the just cause of other developing countries to break free from colonial rule, achieve national independence, and eradicate racial segregation. It has helped them to build up their capacity for development, and provided them with development assistance and humanitarian relief. These are great contribution to safeguarding world peace and development and furthering the international cause of human rights.

  助力发展中国家经济社会发展。中国注重推动广大发展中国家人民生存权、发展权的实现,长期在基础设施及教育、卫生、农业等领域向亚洲、非洲、拉丁美洲等的发展中国家和地区提供支援和帮助。中国在提供国际援助时,坚持不附带任何政治条件、不干涉受援国内政,始终做到相互尊重、平等对待、重信守诺。1963年,中国首次派出援外医疗队,截至2019年8月,已累计派遣医疗队员2.6万人次,诊治患者2.8亿人次。1964年,中国政府宣布以平等互利、不附带条件为核心的对外经济技术援助八项原则,确立了中国开展对外援助的基本方针,在工业、农业、教育、医疗、公共设施等各部门、各领域广泛开展对外援助。中国同多个发展中国家建立了经济技术合作关系,援建了坦赞铁路、毛里塔尼亚友谊港、中非友谊医院、老挝琅勃拉邦医院、斯里兰卡纪念班达拉奈克国际会议大厦、埃及开罗国际会议中心、肯尼亚国际体育中心、坦桑尼亚国家体育场等一批重大基础设施。近年来,中国国家主席习近平等党和国家领导人多次在国际场合宣布系列重大对外援助倡议和举措。中国多次主动免除与中国有外交关系的最不发达国家、重债穷国、内陆发展中国家、小岛屿发展中国家的债务。

  Supporting economic and social development in other developing countries. To help the peoples of developing countries to realize their rights to subsistence and development, China has long provided assistance to other developing countries and regions in Asia, Africa, and Latin America in such fields as infrastructure, education, healthcare and agriculture. When providing international aid, China never imposes political conditions, nor does it interfere in the internal affairs of recipient countries. It always stands by the rules of mutual respect, each party treating the other as an equal, and keeping its commitments.

  In 1963, China dispatched its first international medical aid team. By August 2019, it had dispatched 26,000 medical workers on aid missions abroad, who have treated 280 million patients. In 1964, the Chinese government announced the eight principles for foreign economic and technical aid, setting its basic policy for international assistance: these focus on equality and mutual benefit, and no conditions are attached. It has since provided international assistance that covers all sectors of economy and all fields of society, including industry, agriculture, education, medical care, and infrastructure. China has established partnerships for economic and technological cooperation with many developing peers, and helped build a significant number of infrastructure projects in these countries. Among them are the Tanzania-Zambia Railway, the Friendship Port in Mauritania, the Friendship Hospital in Central African Republic, the Luang Prabang Hospital in Laos, the Bandaranaike Memorial International Convention Hall in Sri Lanka, the Cairo International Conference Center in Egypt, the Moi International Sports Center in Kenya, and the National Stadium of Tanzania.

  In recent years, President Xi and other CPC and government leaders have announced a raft of major foreign aid initiatives and measures at international events. In addition, they have offered multiple rounds of debt exemption for countries that have diplomatic relations with China – the least developed countries, heavily indebted poor countries, landlocked developing countries, and small island developing countries.

  着力提升其他发展中国家发展能力。20世纪50年代开始资助其他发展中国家学生来华学习,帮助亚洲和非洲国家建设普通和技术院校,60年代开始向发展中国家派遣援外教师,70年代至80年代以接收留学生的方式专门为受援国培养中高级技术和管理人才。近年来,中国先后设立南南合作援助基金、南南合作与发展学院、金砖国家经济技术合作交流计划等,通过举办培训、外派管理人员和技术专家、提供奖学金等方式,帮助其他发展中国家培养人才。为支持全球妇女事业发展,2015年,习近平主席在全球妇女峰会上宣布,邀请3万名发展中国家妇女来华参加培训,并在当地为发展中国家培训10万名女性技术人员。中国发起成立亚洲基础设施投资银行、丝路基金,与其他金砖国家共同发起成立新开发银行等国际金融机构,充分借助上海合作组织、金砖国家等机制的带动作用,提出共商共建共享“一带一路”倡议,与沿线国家或地区达成合作项目,主动分享发展机遇和经验,为增进各国民生福祉作出新贡献。

  Helping other developing countries to build up their capacity for development. In the 1950s, China began to provide funds to people of other developing countries to study in China, and to help African and other Asian countries to build regular and technical schools. In the early 1960s, it began to dispatch teachers to other developing countries. In the 1970s and 1980s, it began to cultivate senior and mid-level technicians and managers for its aid targets by admitting their students. In recent years, China has set up the Assistance Fund for South-South Cooperation and the Institute of South-South Cooperation and Development, and launched an economic and technical cooperation plan for BRICS countries. By providing training courses, dispatching managerial and technical professionals, and offering scholarships, it helps other developing countries to cultivate talent. In support of women’s development worldwide, President Xi announced at the 2015 Global Summit of Women that China would invite 30,000 women from other developing countries to attend training in China, and would train another 100,000 female technicians in their countries. China initiated the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the Silk Road Fund. It also worked with other BRICS countries and established the New Development Bank and some other international financial institutions. While fully relying on mechanisms such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and BRICS, it has proposed the Belt and Road Initiative featured with extensive consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits. Through cooperation projects with countries or regions along the routes of the Belt and Road, China shares its development opportunities and experience and thereby contributes more to improving the wellbeing of their peoples.

  积极开展人道主义援助。中国的人道主义援助对象和规模不断扩大,同时,中国始终恪守反对人道主义干涉的原则,从不干涉被援助国内政,充分尊重当地人文环境和风俗习惯。中国积极参与联合国机构主导的国际人道主义活动,1979年加入联合国儿童基金会、世界粮食计划署,恢复了在联合国难民署执委会的活动,并多次向其捐款捐物。2004年中国建立人道主义紧急救灾援助应急机制,向朝鲜、孟加拉国等国提供粮食等人道主义物资援助;向东南亚国家提供防治禽流感技术援助;就几内亚比绍蝗灾和霍乱,墨西哥甲型H1N1流感,非洲埃博拉、黄热病、鼠疫等传染病疫情,尼泊尔、日本、伊朗、海地、智利、厄瓜多尔、墨西哥地震,马达加斯加、美国卡特里娜、加勒比有关国家飓风,菲律宾超强台风海燕,印度洋海啸、印度尼西亚巽他海啸,马来西亚、缅甸、巴基斯坦洪灾,老挝水电站溃坝,智利山火等提供物资、现汇或人员等人道主义援助。在2011年利比亚撤侨行动中,中国协助亚洲、欧洲12个国家撤离约2100名外国公民。在2015年也门撤侨行动中,中国协助亚洲、非洲、欧洲、美洲15个国家撤离279名外国公民。

  Providing humanitarian relief. Over the past years, China’s humanitarian relief has increased, and the number of recipients has grown steadily. Throughout this process, China adheres to the principle of opposition to any interference under the pretext of humanitarianism. It never meddles in the internal affairs of recipient countries, and fully respects their culture and customs. China takes an active part in international humanitarian relief initiatives launched by UN organizations. In 1979, it joined the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund and World Food Program, and resumed its activities in the Executive Committee of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). It has since made many donations to the UNHCR.

  In 2004, China launched an emergency mechanism for urgent international humanitarian relief, under which it has provided relief to many countries. This relief includes food and other material assistance to the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and Bangladesh, and technical aid to Southeast Asian countries to combat avian influenza. It also covers funding, personnel, and in-kind support to fight diseases and natural disasters:

  ? in Guinea-Bissau against locust plague and cholera;

  ? in Mexico against A/H1N1 flu;

  ? in Africa against Ebola, yellow fever, plague and other infectious diseases;

  ? in Nepal, Japan, Iran, Haiti, Chile, Ecuador and Mexico against earthquakes;

  ? in Madagascar and the Caribbean countries against hurricanes;

  ? in the US against Hurricane Katrina;

  ? in the Philippines against Super Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda);

  ? in the Indian Ocean countries against tsunami;

  ? in Indonesia against 2018 Sunda Strait Tsunami;

  ? in Malaysia, Myanmar and Pakistan against floods;

  ? in Laos against a dam collapse in 2018;

  ? in Chile against mountain fires.

  China assisted 12 Asian and European countries to extract about 2,100 of their citizens in its evacuation operation from Libya in 2011, and again helped 15 Asian, African, European, and American countries to extract 279 of their citizens in the evacuation operation from Yemen in 2015.

  努力维护世界和平与安全。作为和平共处五项原则的积极倡导者和坚定实践者,中国不仅自身积极奉行和平外交思想、注重与各国和平共处,而且积极倡导共同、综合、合作、可持续的安全观,致力于推动南南合作和南北对话,努力缩小南北差距。中国在巴勒斯坦问题、伊朗核问题、朝鲜半岛问题、叙利亚问题等重大国际、地区热点问题上积极建言献策、身体力行,呼吁各方冷静克制,以政治外交等手段和平解决争端。中国积极参与国际执法安全合作,在联合国、国际刑警组织、上海合作组织等国际和地区组织框架下加强合作,打击一切恐怖主义、分裂主义、极端主义犯罪和毒品犯罪。中国自1990年起参加联合国维和行动,是联合国安理会常任理事国中派出维和人员最多的国家,也是联合国维和行动第二大出资国。截至2018年5月,中国已累计向苏丹、黎巴嫩、柬埔寨、利比亚等国家和地区派出维和军事人员3.7万余人次,先后派出维和警察2700余人次,参加了约30项联合国维和行动。

  Safeguarding world peace and security. An active advocate and a faithful practitioner of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, China pursues a foreign policy of peace and peaceful coexistence with all countries, and is also a firm advocate of common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security. It is committed to advancing South-South cooperation and North-South dialogue, and to narrowing the South-North gap. China has put forward proposals and initiatives and made concrete efforts to address many major international and regional flashpoints, such as the Palestinian issue, the Iranian nuclear issue, the Korean Peninsula issue, and the Syrian issue. It calls for all parties concerned to stay calm, exercise restraint, and solve disputes by political and diplomatic means.

  China is also active in international cooperation on law enforcement and security. It has intensified cooperation under the framework of international and regional organizations, including the UN, the International Criminal Police Organization, and SCO, to combat terrorism, separatism, extremism, and drug-related crimes. China began to participate in UN peacekeeping operations in 1990. It now ranks first among the permanent members of the UN Security Council in terms of the number of peacekeepers dispatched, and is the second largest donor country to UN peacekeeping operations. By May 2018, China had sent more than 37,000 military and more than 2,700 police personnel to participate in about 30 UN peacekeeping missions in Sudan, Lebanon, Cambodia, Libya, and other countries and regions.

  结束语

  Conclusion

  新中国的70年,是为中国人民谋幸福的70年,也是为世界人民谋发展的70年。新中国人权事业发展取得的巨大成就,有目共睹,永载史册。这是中国道路的成功,是中国人民的胜利。在庆祝中华人民共和国成立70周年之际,中国人民愿与世界各国人民一道分享成功与胜利的喜悦。

  In the 70 years since its founding, the PRC has been working for the wellbeing of the people, and also for global development. Its unprecedented achievements in human rights protection have been witnessed by all and will go down in history. They represent the success of the Chinese path, a victory for the people of China. As we are celebrating the 70th anniversary of the founding of the PRC, the Chinese people are happy to share this success and victory with the peoples of the rest of the world.

  当前,在以习近平同志为核心的党中央坚强领导下,中国人民正在为实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标和中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦而努力。在未来的岁月里,随着全面建成小康社会的实现,随着国家基本实现现代化,随着建成社会主义现代化强国,中国人民必将享有更加广泛、更加充分的权利,中国人民必将在更高水平上实现全面发展。

  The Chinese people are striving to achieve the Two Centenary Goals and the Chinese Dream of national rejuvenation under the leadership of the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping as the core. In future, as these goals are attained and China becomes a great modern socialist country, the Chinese people will certainly enjoy to the full more extensive rights and realize well-rounded development at higher levels.

  在新的历史时代,中国将秉持文明多样和文明交流互鉴精神,与国际社会一道,推动各国共同发展、共同繁荣,促进世界人权事业发展,共同构建人类命运共同体。

  In this new era, China will continue to uphold cultural diversity, communicate with and learn from other civilizations, and work with the international community for common development and prosperity, for progress in human rights worldwide, and for building a global community of shared future.

  (来源:新华网)

  (Source: Xinhua)

  文章来源:http://www.china.org.cn/chinese/2019-09/26/content_75248676.htm

库尔勒“铁人”走出国门展风采

  5月7日,来自新疆库尔勒KBI运动团队的三位“铁人三项”运动业余爱好者王欢、黄帆(曾用名黄治铭)和李胜,一起参加了在越南举行的世界铁人三项IRONMAN的比赛,他们完成了由1.9公里的游泳、90公里的自行车、21公里的跑步组成的铁人三项比赛。

  2016年9月,得知2017年世界铁人三项IRONMAN比赛将在越南举办,来自库尔勒市的三位选手王欢、黄帆和李胜也第一时间报名参赛。他们来自不同的工作岗位,王欢目前是巴州电大的一名教师,黄帆是一家公司的业务负责人,李胜是塔里木油田的一名职工。正是因为平日热爱运动,使不同年龄段不同职业的人聚在了一起。

  “我年轻的时候就开始坚持锻炼身体了,健身能让我始终保持良好的状态。”50岁的李胜说,为了全面发展,他和黄帆2016年加入游泳协会进行专门的游泳练习,并第一次参加了在合肥举办的铁人三项比赛。虽然没有取得好的名次,但重在超越自己。

  36岁的王欢则是在朋友感染下报名参赛的。他从最初不会游泳,到比赛之前考取了游泳救生员证书,这段时间做了大量练习。

  5月6日,记者联系到王欢时,他们已抵达比赛地——越南岘港,三人赛前状态良好。据王欢介绍,此次比赛吸引了超过55个国家和地区的约1300名运动员参赛,来自中国新疆的选手只有他们三人。

  5月7日下午,王欢等三人顺利完成了比赛。28岁的黄帆说,三人当时进度基本差不多,游泳上岸后大家互相鼓励。因为气温高,在取自行车时,他的高压车胎跟很多人一样都爆胎了,不少人这时相继退赛,而他们三人则在相互鼓励和支持下抵达了终点。

  此次比赛,黄帆以6小时09分完赛,王欢和李胜均以6小时32分完赛。虽然比赛没有拿到名次,王欢认为,铁人三项最精彩的不是实现梦想的瞬间,而是追求梦想的过程。

  “没想到咱们本地体育爱好者也积极投身到铁人三项这样的国际赛事中,能完成整个赛事很不容易,他们是好样的。”巴州文化体育广播影视局副局长张卫东得知这一消息后十分高兴。他说,我国目前正在推行“全民健身计划(2016-2020年)”和助推“健康中国2030”发展战略,在这种大背景下,正是群众自发组织的体育活动不断增多,进而掀起了全民健身的热潮,所以只要在条件允许的情况下,一定大力支持和鼓励群众自发性组织的体育竞技比赛。(杨坤)

  文章来源:http://xj.people.com.cn/n2/2017/0510/c186332-30163967.html

张近东:中国零售业的“追梦人”

  新华网南京9月24日电(记者何磊静)1990年冬天,南京城里新开了一家不足200平米的空调专卖店,店主是27岁的张近东,不过这并未引起当时各大国营电器商场的注意。

  这位刚辞去稳定工作的年轻人,东拼西凑10万块钱选择“下海”创业。他也许想到了自己能在激烈竞争中脱颖而出,但他肯定没想到,这家小店在近30年后,成为了中国零售业的标杆企业。

  

  1990年苏宁创立于南京宁海路

  拥有25万名员工、大小门店近13000家,营收稳居民营企业前列,连续三年入榜“世界500强”……如今的苏宁已彻底从那间小门面蜕变成零售巨头。它一步步做大做强的足迹,既呼应了中国经济稳步前进的步伐,也勾勒出中国零售业发展的轨迹,而张近东作为苏宁创始人,正是奔跑在这条路上的“追梦人”。

  

  2018年苏宁董事长张近东作为全国人大代表参加两会

  踏着“春风”

  “苏宁诞生在1990年,真正的快速发展是1992年邓小平同志南巡讲话后。”张近东说,改革开放打开了民营经济的发展之门。

  他把目光瞄准空调市场,最初并不被看好。当时南京地区空调售卖由国营商场控制,它们规模大、渠道多,一家民营小企业如何去竞争?

  但是国家对发展市场经济的支持让张近东有底气,他在经营模式上大胆创新,率先提出打造国内空调领域送货、安装、维修、保养等一条龙售后服务,仅用一年时间就占据南京空调市场七成份额。

  2000年,中国政府允许房地产企业试点上市,房地产行业迅猛发展。“地产发展一定会带来更多家电需求。”张近东捕捉到了机遇,壮士断腕般地砍掉了空调50%的市场份额,主动放弃80%的批发业务,选择投身家电全国连锁。

  他一直相信,苏宁转型成功背后是中国市场的巨大潜力。

  

  2004年7月苏宁在深交所挂牌上市

  中国加入世贸组织后,沃尔玛、家乐福、百思买等国际零售巨头纷纷抢占中国市场。张近东看好国内消费力,迅速在全国布局连锁店,2009年苏宁店面就达1千余家,销售规模超千亿元。同时,苏宁借外力快速扩张,与国际知名企业应用软件供应商SAP达成合作,携手德国家电巨头博世西门子,为自己扎根零售开拓广阔空间。

  跑向“未来”

  刷脸进店、挑选商品、扫码结账、自行离店……科幻作品中的“无人购物”场景,在苏宁无人超市已是平常景象。

  而这一切,源起于苏宁十年前的互联网转型。当时,苏宁已经是全国最大的线下家电连锁企业,张近东却看到了电商崛起的挑战与机遇,提出要营销变革、转战线上。对此,很多人一开始并不理解,“觉得现在我做得还不错嘛,怎么要转型,要创新,甚至要归零?反正有点懵。”

  在一片争议声中,张近东果断拍板开启了苏宁的互联网转型之路,而且在国内大数据还未兴起时,他就提出要基于数据应用来使管理精细化和高效化。

  2010年,苏宁正式推出线上平台苏宁易购,电商之路高歌猛进。

  

  苏宁广场

  但在张近东看来,苏宁并不是电商企业,而是一家智慧零售商。他在2013年一次在美国斯坦福大学发表的演讲中指出:“未来的零售企业不独在线下或者线上,一定是线上线下融合模式,纯电商模式只能过渡。”

  两年后,苏宁和中国电商巨头阿里巴巴宣布投资联姻,总额超420亿元人民币。这笔国内零售史上最大的交易,既是对张近东零售理念的认可,也改变了中国的零售格局。

  

  苏宁智慧无人店

  瞄准未来后,就要全力奔跑。张近东在2017年提出“智慧零售”概念,要运用云计算、大数据、物联网等技术,构建商品、物流、支付等要素的数字化,将采购、销售、服务等流程智能化。刚过一年,苏宁就携着无人店、智慧家居、AR易购等新成果亮相全球消费电子展CES。

  “在世界背景下看中国品牌,真正叫得响的,苏宁是一个。”联纵智达营销咨询集团创始人何慕说。

  不丢初心

  “苏宁是不是已经变成了一家多元化的企业?”随着苏宁业务范围扩展到了地产、物流、金融等领域,市场上总传来这样的疑问。

  “自始至终,苏宁都只做零售这一件事,目前苏宁旗下的布局归根结底都是为了提高零售的核心竞争力,更好满足用户需求。”张近东说,门店、物流、科技和金融四大能力助推了苏宁不断做强零售业务。

  值得一提的是,苏宁还涉足了体育领域,不仅拥有国际米兰、江苏苏宁两支国内外顶级足球俱乐部,还拥有国际赛事版权、体育媒体平台等。“文化类产品是碎片化需求,消费者可能随时需要。更重要的是,体育文化代表向上的力量和阳光的感觉,与苏宁定位很像,更易与消费者建立情感纽带。”张近东说。

  在张近东眼中,企业的稳健发展是最大的社会责任,而持续高速发展的苏宁,有能力为社会做更大的贡献。去年9月,苏宁第5次获得中国政府颁发的最高规格慈善奖项——中华慈善奖。这家民营企业在扶贫领域投入达5亿元,从事扶贫工作人员超1000人,解决了3500多名贫困人员就业。“企业小了是个人的,企业大了是行业和社会的。”他说。

  

  苏宁爱德足球1+1公益项目

  回望新中国成立以来民营企业的发展,张近东十分感慨:“我们要感恩祖国,感谢时代。没有祖国的强大,就没有苏宁的成长;没有时代的进步,就没有苏宁的创新发展。现在的民营企业,应该珍惜来之不易的成功,要始终将企业的发展融入国家民族的大发展中,将个人梦、企业梦、中国梦有机结合起来,实现共赢发展。”(完)

  文章来源:http://js.xinhuanet.com/2019-09/24/c_1125032245.htm

S9小组赛FPX爆冷输给JT LPL众解说分析失利原因

  北京时间10月12日晚上8点,英雄联盟S9全球总决赛小组赛正式开打。

  S9世界赛:FPX爆大冷输给JT LPL众解说分析失利原因

  在小组赛首日,LPL赛区的3支种子都将全部出战。第二局RNG 1-0 CG,第三局IG 1-0 AHQ,LPL二号和三号种子顺利拿到开门红,第五局FPX世界赛首次登场对阵赛前普遍不被人看好的JT战队,结果FPX爆出世界赛首日最大冷门,不敌JT苦吞首败。

  S9世界赛:FPX爆大冷输给JT LPL众解说分析失利原因

  实话讲,FPX首场世界赛,无论赛前的BP还是比赛选手的发挥和心态都存在比较大的问题。不过作为世界赛的新军该交的学费也是需要交的,希望FPX在今后能够尽快调整好,就像S9主题宣传片讲的那样,战胜心魔,涅槃重生!

  赛后FPX战队针对自己的失利也做出了总结:

  S9世界赛:FPX爆大冷输给JT LPL众解说分析失利原因

  而其他众多LPL的解说及选手们也对FPX的失利发表了自己的看法:

  解说娃娃客观的指出FPX这局存在的问题,阵容后期没伤害,选手发挥有些着急。

  S9世界赛:FPX爆大冷输给JT LPL众解说分析失利原因

  解说和教练都做过的前皇族辅助选手Tabe则是详细分析FPX的BP思路存在的问题。

  S9世界赛:FPX爆大冷输给JT LPL众解说分析失利原因

  LPL新晋实力女解说瞳夕则对今日LPL三队的表现进行了点评,现版本单核阵容容错率确实太低了。

  S9世界赛:FPX爆大冷输给JT LPL众解说分析失利原因

  解说猫皇和前WE选手草莓则表达了自己的痛惜之情,

  S9世界赛:FPX爆大冷输给JT LPL众解说分析失利原因

  S9世界赛:FPX爆大冷输给JT LPL众解说分析失利原因

  而像管泽元、米勒、雨童、RIta等LPL解说也纷纷给初登世界赛的FPX鼓励打气。

  S9世界赛:FPX爆大冷输给JT LPL众解说分析失利原因

  输比赛不可怕,可怕的是找不出输比赛的原因以及做不出有效地调整。虽然这一场FPX输了,但是相信大家对于FPX依然充满信心,希望FPX的教练和队员能够顶住压力,调整好心态,在以后的小组赛打出属于自己的风采。

  文章来源:http://games.ifeng.com/a/20191014/45660538_0.shtml

全国男子篮球联赛总决赛赛程

  龙舟世界杯11月宁波开赛

  本报北京10月10日电 (记者 刘晨茵 俞吉吉 杨静 王波) 10月10日,记者从首届龙舟世界杯新闻发布会上获悉,11月1日至4日,国际划联首届龙舟世界杯将在宁波东钱湖击鼓开战,届时来自全球的30余支队伍将上演一场水上版的速度与激情。

  国际皮划艇联合会成立于1924年,是国际奥委会最古老的单项协会之一,龙舟世界杯是国际划联旗下的顶级龙舟赛事。本次大赛由国际皮划艇联合会主办,中国皮划艇协会、宁波市人民政府承办,宁波市体育局、宁波市鄞州区人民政府、宁波东钱湖旅游度假区管理委员会共同协办。浙报传媒控股集团有限公司为赛事执行承办单位。

  届时,将有来自全球各地的近千名选手在宁波东钱湖一较高下。作为东道主,中国将派出两支以专业水上运动员为班底的龙舟队与各国参赛队伍同场竞技。

  据了解,龙舟已经被2020年东京奥运会列为表演项目,本次宁波龙舟世界杯及一系列配套活动的举行,将为龙舟运动“划”进奥运会正式比赛项目助力。

  文章来源:http://074iyr.5sjl.cn/jht.php/999qrj.xml

S3全球总决赛 OMG VS TSM(英文版)

  LOL即网络游戏《英雄联盟》(League of Legends)的缩写,LOL是美国RoitGames最新开发的3D即时战略网游,是由DotA-Allstars原班人马精心打造,将这一经典玩法从对战平台延伸到真正的网络世界的网游巨作。游戏继承了DotA的快节奏,多种策略,团队作战,多样化的英雄选择,支持最多6V6对战模式。

  LOL是美国Roit Games最新开发,由腾讯代理的3D即时战略网游。《League of Legends》(以下简称LOL)由DotA-Allstars原地图作者Steve Guinsoo(DotA主要开发者,DotA中的邪恶镰刀以其名字命名。现任LoL游戏英雄背景、技能、角色概念设计)和Tom Cadwell(前暴雪员工,War3主策划、War3数值平衡师、WOW系统策划师,现任Lol游戏系统主策划)精心打造,将DOTA这一经典玩法从对战平台延伸到真正的网络世界的网游巨作。

  文章来源:http://v.pptv.com/page/jtI1shqA8C6RD3c.html

王者荣耀2019周年庆皮肤返场活动什么时候?返场皮肤活动介绍

王者荣耀2019年周年庆皮肤返场活动什么时候开始,今年的返场活动皮肤有哪些呢,以下我们来一起看下今年的返场皮肤活动介绍。

王者荣耀 2019 返场投票开启时间

10 月中旬

由于这个限定皮肤的返场投票活动已经推出到了 10 月份中旬的时候了,而现在才是 10 月初,所以说这个活动暂时是还没有开启的,因此具体是有哪些皮肤呢,目前暂时也未可知。要等到十月长假结束了之后,这个活动也就应该会正式开启了,小伙伴们还需要耐心的再等两天哦!估计也快啦!

2019 返场皮肤投票规则是什么?

官方还没有公布具体的细则,应该会和去年差不多,官方会推出主会场+分会场投票玩法,可以让更多的玩家参与投票,同时分会场的投票票数将以一定的比例注入到主会场投票,最终投票数最高的两款皮肤,将会在 10 月 28 日周年庆期间返场!

文章来源:http://www.chinaz.com/tribe/2019/1008/1052594.shtml

胡锡进:NBA总裁不像有进一步挑衅中国的意思,但美国的议员们有

莫雷事件继续发酵,多名中国艺人宣布退出NBA计划在上海举行的球迷之夜和中国赛相关活动。NBA在中国长期积累的市场影响力正在剧烈动摇,NBA总裁肖华就莫雷事件的表态激起了中国公众的更多愤怒。事情正螺旋式下坠。

最滑稽的是,肖华和NBA两头不是人。几乎就在中国艺人们纷纷宣布抵制的同时,美国那边卢比奥等多名国会议员纷纷指责NBA为了取悦中国球迷,追求金钱利益,”很无耻地退缩了”,他们主张莫雷应当受到称赞和支持。

这就是莫雷作为休斯敦火箭队总经理发那张“为自由而战,与香港站在一起”的图片给火箭队和整个NBA带来的巨大代价。老胡相信,NBA的很多人现在都恨死莫雷了。由于事情正在演变成中美两国社会两种政治正确性的严重冲突,而这中间几乎没有调解的空间,NBA在中国的市场前景面临着前所未有的挑战。

此时的肖华作为NBA总裁无论说什么都只会越抹越黑。我仔细看了他的表态,客观说,他没有进一步挑衅中国公众的意思。他的原话是“我支持莫雷,同时也支持蔡崇信”。而蔡崇信是NBA布鲁克林篮网的老板,他主张尊重中国球迷,认为涉及中国主权的问题没有讨价还价的余地。

很显然,肖华讲那番话的本意是想安抚正在暴跳起来的美国舆论,同时尽量不得罪连日来持续声讨莫雷的中国网民们。但他显然失败了,中美舆论没有一头对他试图左右逢源的言论感到满意。

这场突如其来的冲突无疑是美方挑衅引起的,美方的政治正确性表现得越疯狂,将从中国互联网上引发越激烈的反弹,结果就是美方用自己荒唐的傲慢亲手扼杀NBA在中国的市场。中国公众其实至始至终都处在对美方态度进行回应的位置上,我们不是挑衅者,但我们是对自己权利的坚定捍卫者。

老胡要对中国公众说,我们无需对肖华的谈话本身很愤怒,相信谁处在他的位置上都很难,而是要坚决抵制美国社会中正在刮起的反华旋风。莫雷干的是很愚蠢、无礼的事情,他是在NBA即将举行一系列中国市场推广活动之前上传那个冒犯中国公众的推特的,这样的逞能反映了他的严重低情商和不负责任。

就像前面说的,我相信很多NBA的人不可能支持莫雷,因为他损害了NBA的利益,但是美国有一股强大的力量迫使肖华说“支持莫雷”,玩弄“向中国的球迷道歉与支持一个人(莫雷)的言论表达权并不矛盾”的辩证法。

美国的议员们纷纷赤膊上阵,老胡主张,中国的官方无需参与此事。NBA在中国的推广是市场行为,而组成中国市场的是广大球迷和公众。如何尊重中国市场,或者如果真的有志气就割掉中国这块市场,让NBA和美国的政治及舆论精英们去纠结吧。

中国的公众至少在NBA的问题上是消费者,他们有权利在精神上更加舒服一点,甚至任性一点。美国的精英们想把NBA在中国的推广销售变成强势的美国政治正确的傲慢展示,他们休想。

文章来源:https://www.jfdaily.com/news/detail?id=180863

14年欧冠决赛录像, 锐参〕考 这些?人,让我们看到了“香港的脊梁”——

?
14年欧冠决赛录像10月08日报道曾对记者◥说,看到?这些照片后,他脑海里就冒出了想法:不能把照片删除,↘一定要找到照片的主人进行归还。伦敦市政府在一份?声明中说,一些人指认约?翰逊出任伦敦市长期间破格允许美国商?人珍妮弗·阿尔库里参加一些贸易考察团、允许她的企业获得市政府赞?助,而“?这些好处她原本无从得到”。近日,南宁局集团公?司联?合《诗刊》杂志社、中国铁路文联、广西文联、广西作协开出高铁诗歌列车G150︿2次,近100位诗人与文艺工作者在车上以诗会友,抒发爱国之情%,为旅客奉献了一场文化盛▓宴。

功夫一直是国产电影中极具魅力的元素?,1982┣年,《少林寺》引发了新中国武侠动作片的第一┑轮狂潮。海口?美兰机场在假日期间除增开值机柜台和安检通道外?,还将派?员引导无托运行李的旅客使用?自助值机柜台,或使用“无纸化通关”出行服务?省去值机办理步骤,直接进行安检,减少旅客现场排队等候时间。”挑战战胜心结冲破舒适圈从《士兵突击》中的~史今开始,?张译逐渐▌被观众所熟知,到后来《亲爱的》《追凶者也》《?鸡毛飞上天》《红海行动》,张译一次次地演绎着或正面或反面、或暖心或冷面的角?色,?而在这些不同人物背后,接演过程常常是以拒绝开始的。

14年欧冠决赛录像各种运动如散步、慢跑、篮╝球、足球、?太极拳、八段锦、健身操、┇广场舞、登山、骑车等,均能起到充分活动?肢体,宣发肺气,健体强身的作用。尽管早已习シ惯“魔鬼训练”,但彭于晏?还是坦﹪言这一次困难很大,也很危险,笑言林超贤导演“是个有自动升级系统的人”。碧桂园是为全世界创造美?好生活产品的高科技综▃合性企业。

集团一直坚持自?主创新发展理念,承担了?多项国家级、省级和市级的科技计划项目,先后获得国劳家科技进步奖、广西科技进步奖、梧州市科技进步奖等60多项,拥有专利45项。高科技的应用,让我们成为了?绿色生态智慧建筑的建造者,我们首创立体分监层现代都市建筑——森林≒城市,被《福布斯》评为(“影响世界未来的5座城市”之首。(记者/关?喜如意通讯员/?方学勇萧瑞燕)(责编:牛攀、陈育柱)

14年欧冠决赛录像在其执教期内,▄中国羽毛球队一共获得56?个单打世界冠军和9个团体世界冠军。1953年,王文教随印尼体育观摩团参加了ツ在天津举办的全国四项?球类运动会,正是这次比赛,让他意识?到了中国羽球与世界℅顶尖水平的巨大差距。  澳门基金会行政委员?会主席吴志良表示,新时代的澳门是参与粤港?澳大湾区建设、融入国家⊕发展大局↓、助力构建人类命运共同体的澳门。

”在张译最新的作?品《攀登者》中,过程亦是如此,“∶尤其是一看这?是60年登山的?三个英雄之一,而这三个人打破了人类有史以来的纪录。时光倒流至40年前,这里却是有名的风?沙之?乡:“举目远望一片沙,大风一起不见家。改革成就企业华丽转身“?老字号”传的是一种“老”?,但却又?是靠着不停地变革与创新支撑着这个不变的“老”字。

14年欧冠决赛录像(完)(责编:庞冠华、?许荩文)而且据悉,国庆三强的□预售票房,三四线城市?占比均超一线城市,这说明这个国庆黄金周╊,三四线城市将成为大票仓。随着国?家深入实施乡村振兴战略、决胜全面建成小康社会步伐逐步加快,地方「电网

文章来源:http://hugowap-88154594.upinlive.com/dl5lbb8u/q3dek.xml

既然不能看火箭,为什么不能看NBA呢?

因为莫雷一个人连累了火箭,那为什么不因为火箭直接封杀nba呢?
一级号,请问你以前看nba么?
滚吧
就封火箭 你气不气
然后要不要因为NBA,再封杀整个美国??
要不要把地球也封杀了呀
因为是火箭经理说的,其他球队没说
别洗了,真的
你真的蠢,我连和***的欲望都没有
这么说吧,事情如果持续发酵,NBA也会被封杀的,就看肖华怎么处理了
建议封杀nba
如果联盟连屁都不放一个,不肯割席,这事就闹大了。
不封杀NBA还不是为了你这种狗考虑????
**滚**全家的狗汉奸
封杀你全家草!

文章来源:http://tieba.baidu.com/p/6287220661